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1. Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0
ace, atom, beverage, bit, bumper, carat, centigram, crumb, dab, dash, decagram, decigram, dole, dollop, dose, dot, draft, dram avoirdupois, drench, dribble, driblet, drink, drop, dwarf, dyne, farthing, finger, fleck, flyspeck, force, fragment, gargle, gobbet, grain, gram, granule, groat, gulp, guzzle, hair, handful, hoot, hundredweight, iota, jigger, jolt, jot, kilo, kilogram, lap, libation, little, little bit, lota, mass, megaton, milligram, minim, minimum, minutiae, mite, modicum, mole, molecule, mote, nip, nutshell, ounce, ounce avoirdupois, ounce troy, particle, pebble, peg, pennyweight, pinch, pittance, point, portion, potation, potion, pound, pound avoirdupois, pound troy, poundal, pull, quaff, quick one, round, round of drinks, scruple, shot, shred, sip, slug, slurp, smidgen, smitch, snack, snifter, snort, speck, splash, spoonful, spot, stone, suck, sup, swig, swill, thimbleful, tiny bit, tittle, ton, tot, trifling amount, trivia, units of weight, weight, wet, whit
Dictionary Results for dram:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
    n 1: a unit of apothecary weight equal to an eighth of an ounce
         or to 60 grains [syn: dram, drachm, drachma]
    2: 1/16 ounce or 1.771 grams
    3: the basic unit of money in Armenia

2. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Dram \Dram\, v. i. & t.
   To drink drams; to ply with drams. [Low] --Johnson.
   [1913 Webster] DRAM

3. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
DRAM \DRAM\, D-RAM \D-RAM\n. (Computers)
   same as dynamic RAM. [acron.]

   Syn: dynamic RAM.

4. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Dram \Dram\ (dr[a^]m), n. [OF. drame, F. drachme, L. drachma,
   drachm, drachma, fr. Gr. drachmh`, prop., a handful, fr.
   dra`ssesqai to grasp. Cf. Drachm, Drachma.]
   1. A weight; in Apothecaries' weight, one eighth part of an
      ounce, or sixty grains; in Avoirdupois weight, one
      sixteenth part of an ounce, or 27.34375 grains.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. A minute quantity; a mite.
      [1913 Webster]

            Were I the chooser, a dram of well-doing should be
            preferred before many times as mush the forcible
            hindrance of evildoing.               --Milton.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. As much spirituous liquor as is usually drunk at once; as,
      a dram of brandy; hence, a potation or potion; as, a dram
      of poison. --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   4. (Numis.) A Persian daric. --Ezra ii. 69.
      [1913 Webster]

   Fluid dram, or Fluid drachm. See under Fluid.
      [1913 Webster]

5. V.E.R.A. -- Virtual Entity of Relevant Acronyms (February 2016)
       Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, IC)

6. The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018)
dynamic random-access memory
dynamic RAM

    (DRAM) A type of semiconductor memory in which the
   information is stored in capacitors on a MOS integrated
   circuit.  Typically each bit is stored as an amount of
   electrical charge in a storage cell consisting of a capacitor
   and a transistor.  Due to leakage the capacitor discharges
   gradually and the memory cell loses the information.
   Therefore, to preserve the information, the memory has to be
   refreshed periodically.  Despite this inconvenience, the DRAM
   is a very popular memory technology because of its high
   density and consequent low price.

   The first commercially available DRAM chip was the Intel
   1103, introduced in 1970.

   Early DRAM chips, containing up to a 16k x 1 (16384 locations
   of one bit each), needed 3 supply voltages (+5V, -5V and
   +12V).  Beginning with the 64 kilobit chips, charge pumps
   were included on-chip to create the necessary supply voltages
   out of a single +5V supply.  This was necessary to fit the
   device into a 16-pin DIL package, which was the preferred
   package at the time, and also made them easier to use.

   To reduce the pin count, thereby helping miniaturisation,
   DRAMs generally had a single data line which meant that a
   computer with an N bit wide data bus needed a "bank" of (at
   least) N DRAM chips.  In a bank, the address and control
   signals of all chips were common and the data line of each
   chip was connected to one of the data bus lines.

   Beginning with the 256 kilobit DRAM, a tendency toward
   surface mount packaging arose and DRAMs with more than one
   data line appeared (e.g. 64k x 4), reducing the number of
   chips per bank.  This trend has continued and DRAM chips with
   up to 36 data lines are available today.  Furthermore,
   together with surface mount packages, memory manufacturers
   began to offer memory modules, where a bank of memory chips
   was preassembled on a little printed circuit board (SIP =
   Single Inline Pin Module, SIMM = Single Inline Memory Module,
   DIMM = Dual Inline Memory Module).  Today, this is the
   preferred way to buy memory for workstations and personal

   DRAM bit cells are arranged on a chip in a grid of rows and
   columns where the number of rows and columns are usually a
   power of two.  Often, but not always, the number of rows and
   columns is the same.  A one megabit device would then have
   1024 x 1024 memory cells.  A single memory cell can be
   selected by a 10-bit row address and a 10-bit column address.

   To access a memory cell, one entire row of cells is selected
   and its contents are transferred into an on-chip buffer.  This
   discharges the storage capacitors in the bit cells.  The
   desired bits are then read or written in the buffer.  The
   (possibly altered) information is finally written back into
   the selected row, thereby refreshing all bits (recharging the
   capacitors) in the row.

   To prevent data loss, all bit cells in the memory need to be
   refreshed periodically.  This can be done by reading all rows
   in regular intervals.  Most DRAMs since 1970 have been
   specified such that one of the rows needs to be refreshed at
   least every 15.625 microseconds.  For a device with 1024 rows,
   a complete refresh of all rows would then take up to 16 ms; in
   other words, each cell is guaranteed to hold the data for 16
   ms without refresh.  Devices with more rows have accordingly
   longer retention times.

   Many varieties of DRAM exist today.  They differ in the way
   they are interfaced to the system - the structure of the
   memory cell itself is essentially the same.

   "Traditional" DRAMs have multiplexed address lines and
   separate data inputs and outputs.  There are three control
   signals: RAS\ (row address strobe), CAS\ (column address
   strobe), and WE\ (write enable) (the backslash indicates an
   active low signal).  Memory access procedes as follows:
   1. The control signals initially all being inactive (high), a
   memory cycle is started with the row address applied to the
   address inputs and a falling edge of RAS\ .  This latches the
   row address and "opens" the row, transferring the data in the
   row to the buffer.  The row address can then be removed from
   the address inputs since it is latched on-chip.  2. With RAS\
   still active, the column address is applied to the address
   pins and CAS\ is made active as well.  This selects the
   desired bit or bits in the row which subsequently appear at
   the data output(s).  By additionally activating WE\ the data
   applied to the data inputs can be written into the selected
   location in the buffer.  3. Deactivating CAS\ disables the
   data input and output again.  4. Deactivating RAS\ causes the
   data in the buffer to be written back into the memory array.

   Certain timing rules must be obeyed to guarantee reliable
   operation.  1. RAS\ must remain inactivate for a while before
   the next memory cycle is started to provide sufficient time
   for the storage capacitors to charge (Precharge Time).  2. It
   takes some time from the falling edge of the RAS\ or CAS\
   signals until the data appears at the data output.  This is
   specified as the Row Access Time and the Column Access Time.
   Current DRAM's have Row Access Times of 50-100 ns and Column
   Access Times of 15-40 ns.  Speed grades usually refer to the
   former, more important figure.

   Note that the Memory Cycle Time, which is the minimum time
   from the beginning of one access to the beginning of the next,
   is longer than the Row Access Time (because of the Precharge

   Multiplexing the address pins saves pins on the chip, but
   usually requires additional logic in the system to properly
   generate the address and control signals, not to mention
   further logic for refresh.  Therefore, DRAM chips are usually
   preferred when (because of the required memory size) the
   additional cost for the control logic is outweighed by the
   lower price.

   Based on these principles, chip designers have developed many
   varieties to improve performance or ease system integration of

   PSRAMs (Pseudo Static Random Access Memory) are essentially
   DRAMs with a built-in address multiplexor and refresh
   controller.  This saves some system logic and makes the device
   look like a normal SRAM.  This has been popular as a lower
   cost alternative for SRAM in embedded systems.  It is not a
   complete SRAM substitute because it is sometimes busy when
   doing self-refresh, which can be tedious.

   Nibble Mode DRAM can supply four successive bits on one data
   line by clocking the CAS\ line.

   Page Mode DRAM is a standard DRAM where any number of
   accesses to the currently open row can be made while the RAS
   signal is kept active.

   Static Column DRAM is similar to Page Mode DRAM, but to access
   different bits in the open row, only the column address needs
   to be changed while the CAS\ signal stays active.  The row
   buffer essentially behaves like SRAM.

   Extended Data Out DRAM (EDO DRAM) can continue to output
   data from one address while setting up a new address, for use
   in pipelined systems.

   DRAM used for Video RAM (VRAM) has an additional long
   shift register that can be loaded from the row buffer.  The
   shift register can be regarded as a second interface to the
   memory that can be operated in parallel to the normal
   interface.  This is especially useful in frame buffers for
   CRT displays.  These frame buffers generate a serial data
   stream that is sent to the CRT to modulate the electron beam.
   By using the shift register in the VRAM to generate this
   stream, the memory is available to the computer through the
   normal interface most of the time for updating the display
   data, thereby speeding up display data manipulations.

   SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) adds a separate clock signal to the
   control signals.  It allows more complex state machines on
   the chip and high speed "burst" accesses that clock a series
   of successive bits out (similar to the nibble mode).

   CDRAM (Cached DRAM) adds a separate static RAM array used for
   caching.  It essentially combines main memory and cache
   memory in a single chip.  The cache memory controller needs to
   be added externally.

   RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) changes the system interface of DRAM
   completely.  A byte-wide bus is used for address, data and
   command transfers.  The bus operates at very high speed: 500
   million transfers per second.  The chip operates synchronously
   with a 250MHz clock.  Data is transferred at both rising and
   falling edges of the clock.  A system with signals at such
   frequencies must be very carefully designed, and the signals
   on the Rambus Channel use nonstandard signal levels, making it
   incompatible with standard system logic.  These disadvantages
   are compensated by a very fast data transfer, especially for
   burst accesses to a block of successive locations.

   A number of different refresh modes can be included in some of
   the above device varieties:

   RAS\ only refresh: a row is refreshed by an ordinary read
   access without asserting CAS\.  The data output remains

   CAS\ before RAS\ refresh: the device has a built-in counter
   for the refresh row address.  By activating CAS\ before
   activating RAS\, this counter is selected to supply the row
   address instead of the address inputs.

   Self-Refresh: The device is able to generate refresh cycles
   internally.  No external control signal transitions other than
   those for bringing the device into self-refresh mode are
   needed to maintain data integrity.


7. Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
   The Authorized Version understood the word 'adarkonim (1 Chr.
   29:7; Ezra 8:27), and the similar word darkomnim (Ezra 2:69;
   Neh. 7:70), as equivalent to the Greek silver coin the drachma.
   But the Revised Version rightly regards it as the Greek
   dareikos, a Persian gold coin (the daric) of the value of about
   1 pound, 2s., which was first struck by Darius, the son of
   Hystaspes, and was current in Western Asia long after the fall
   of the Persian empire. (See DARIC.)

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