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World Gazetteer Results for Pfungstadt:
Geographical TypeLocality
Administrative DivisionHessen
2nd Administrative DivisionDarmstadt
Dictionary Results for Germany:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
    n 1: a republic in central Europe; split into East Germany and
         West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990 [syn:
         Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, Deutschland,

2. CIA World Factbook 2002

   Introduction Germany
                            Background: As Europe's largest economy and most
                                        populous nation, Germany remains a
                                        key member of the continent's
                                        economic, political, and defense
                                        organizations. European power
                                        struggles immersed the country in
                                        two devastating World Wars in the
                                        first half of the 20th century and
                                        left the country occupied by the
                                        victorious Allied powers of the US,
                                        UK, France, and the Soviet Union in
                                        1945. With the advent of the Cold
                                        War, two German states were formed
                                        in 1949: the western Federal
                                        Republic of Germany (FRG) and the
                                        eastern German Democratic Republic
                                        (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded
                                        itself in key Western economic and
                                        security organizations, the EC,
                                        which became the EU, and NATO, while
                                        the communist GDR was on the front
                                        line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact.
                                        The decline of the USSR and the end
                                        of the Cold War allowed for German
                                        unification in 1990. Since then
                                        Germany has expended considerable
                                        funds to bring eastern productivity
                                        and wages up to western standards.
                                        In January 2002, Germany and 11
                                        other EU countries introduced a
                                        common European currency, the euro.
   Geography Germany
                              Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic
                                        Sea and the North Sea, between the
                                        Netherlands and Poland, south of
                Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E
                        Map references: Europe
                                  Area: total: 357,021 sq km
                                        water: 7,798 sq km
                                        land: 349,223 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana
                       Land boundaries: total: 3,621 km
                                        border countries: Austria 784 km,
                                        Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
                                        km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km,
                                        Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
                                        km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334
                             Coastline: 2,389 km
                       Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                        the depth of exploitation
                                        exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                        territorial sea: 12 NM
                               Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy,
                                        wet winters and summers; occasional
                                        warm foehn wind
                               Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in
                                        center, Bavarian Alps in south
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
                                        highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
                     Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber,
                                        lignite, uranium, copper, natural
                                        gas, salt, nickel, arable land
                              Land use: arable land: 33.88%
                                        permanent crops: 0.65%
                                        other: 65.47% (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: 4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
                       Natural hazards: flooding
          Environment - current issues: emissions from coal-burning
                                        utilities and industries contribute
                                        to air pollution; acid rain,
                                        resulting from sulfur dioxide
                                        emissions, is damaging forests;
                                        pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw
                                        sewage and industrial effluents from
                                        rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous
                                        waste disposal; government
                                        established a mechanism for ending
                                        the use of nuclear power over the
                                        next 15 years; government working to
                                        meet EU commitment to identify
                                        nature preservation areas in line
                                        with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and
                                        Habitat directive
            Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                            agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                        Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-
                                        Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
                                        Organic Compounds, Antarctic-
                                        Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
                                        Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                        Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
                                        Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                        Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                        Environmental Modification,
                                        Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                        Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                        Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                        Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                        Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                        signed, but not ratified: Air
                                        Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                        Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto
                      Geography - note: strategic location on North European
                                        Plain and along the entrance to the
                                        Baltic Sea
   People Germany
                            Population: 83,251,851 (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 6,568,699;
                                        female 6,227,148)
                                        15-64 years: 67.6% (male 28,606,964;
                                        female 27,695,539)
                                        65 years and over: 17% (male
                                        5,546,140; female 8,607,361) (2002
                Population growth rate: 0.26% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 8.99 births/1,000 population (2002
                            Death rate: 10.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                    Net migration rate: 3.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/
                                        total population: 0.96 male(s)/
                                        female (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.78 years
                                        female: 81.09 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 74.64 years
                  Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 37,000 (1999 est.)
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: 600 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: German(s)
                                        adjective: German
                         Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other
                                        6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-
                                        Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek,
                                        Polish, Spanish)
                             Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%,
                                        Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other
                             Languages: German
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                        and write
                                        total population: 99% (1977 est.)
                                        male: NA%
                                        female: NA%
   Government Germany
                          Country name: conventional long form: Federal
                                        Republic of Germany
                                        conventional short form: Germany
                                        local short form: Deutschland
                                        former: German Empire, German
                                        Republic, German Reich
                                        local long form: Bundesrepublik
                       Government type: federal republic
                               Capital: Berlin
              Administrative divisions: 16 states (Laender, singular -
                                        Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern,
                                        Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen,
                                        Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-
                                        Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
                                        Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-
                                        Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein,
                          Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire
                                        unification); divided into four
                                        zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR,
                                        and later, France) in 1945 following
                                        World War II; Federal Republic of
                                        Germany (FRG or West Germany)
                                        proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included
                                        the former UK, US, and French zones;
                                        German Democratic Republic (GDR or
                                        East Germany) proclaimed 7 October
                                        1949 and included the former USSR
                                        zone; unification of West Germany
                                        and East Germany took place 3
                                        October 1990; all four powers
                                        formally relinquished rights 15
                                        March 1991
                      National holiday: Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
                          Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law;
                                        became constitution of the united
                                        German people 3 October 1990
                          Legal system: civil law system with indigenous
                                        concepts; judicial review of
                                        legislative acts in the Federal
                                        Constitutional Court; has not
                                        accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: President Johannes
                                        RAU (since 1 July 1999)
                                        elections: president elected for a
                                        five-year term by a Federal
                                        Convention including all members of
                                        the Federal Assembly and an equal
                                        number of delegates elected by the
                                        state parliaments; election last
                                        held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23
                                        May 2004); chancellor elected by an
                                        absolute majority of the Federal
                                        Assembly for a four-year term;
                                        election last held 27 September 1998
                                        (next to be held 22 September 2002)
                                        head of government: Chancellor
                                        Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October
                                        cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister
                                        (Federal Ministers) appointed by the
                                        president on the recommendation of
                                        the chancellor
                                        election results: Johannes RAU
                                        elected president; percent of
                                        Federal Convention vote - 57.6%;
                                        Gerhard SCHROEDER elected
                                        chancellor; percent of Federal
                                        Assembly - 52.7%
                    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament
                                        consists of the Federal Assembly or
                                        Bundestag (656 seats usually, but
                                        666 for the 1998 term; note - the
                                        number of seats will be reduced to
                                        598 for 2002 elections; elected by
                                        popular vote under a system
                                        combining direct and proportional
                                        representation; a party must win 5%
                                        of the national vote or three direct
                                        mandates to gain representation;
                                        members serve four-year terms) and
                                        the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69
                                        votes; state governments are
                                        directly represented by votes; each
                                        has 3 to 6 votes depending on
                                        population and are required to vote
                                        as a block)
                                        elections: Federal Assembly - last
                                        held 27 September 1998 (next to be
                                        held 22 September 2002); note -
                                        there are no elections for the
                                        Bundesrat; composition is determined
                                        by the composition of the state-
                                        level governments; the composition
                                        of the Bundesrat has the potential
                                        to change any time one of the 16
                                        states holds an election
                                        election results: Federal Assembly -
                                        percent of vote by party - SPD
                                        40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%,
                                        CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%;
                                        seats by party - SPD 294, Alliance
                                        '90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43,
                                        PDS 37; Federal Council - current
                                        composition - NA
                       Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or
                                        Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the
                                        judges are elected by the Bundestag
                                        and half by the Bundesrat)
         Political parties and leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH
                                        and Fritz KUHN]; Christian
                                        Democratic Union or CDU [Angela
                                        MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or
                                        CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free
                                        Democratic Party or FDP [Guido
                                        WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Party of
                                        Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gregor
                                        GYSI]; Social Democratic Party or
                                        SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
          Political pressure groups and employers' organizations; expellee,
                               leaders: refugee, trade unions, and veterans
             International organization AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC,
                         participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC,
                                        EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO,
                                        G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
                                        IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                        IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
                                        IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
                                        ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
                                        NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
                                        OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                        UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
                                        UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB
                                        (nonregional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                        WToO, WTrO, ZC
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                        Wolfgang Friedrich ISHINGER
                                        consulate(s): Wellington (America
                                        consulate(s) general: Atlanta,
                                        Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
                                        Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140
                                        chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW,
                                        Washington, DC 20007
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel
                                    US: R. COATS
                                        embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse
                                        4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new
                                        embassy will be built near the
                                        Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
                                        mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000,
                                        APO AE 09265
                                        telephone: [49] (030) 8305-0
                                        FAX: [49] (030) 238-6290
                                        consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf,
                                        Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig,
                      Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                        black (top), red, and gold
   Economy Germany
                    Economy - overview: Germany's affluent and
                                        technologically powerful economy
                                        turned in a relatively weak
                                        performance throughout much of the
                                        1990s. The modernization and
                                        integration of the eastern German
                                        economy continues to be a costly
                                        long-term problem, with annual
                                        transfers from west to east
                                        amounting to roughly $70 billion.
                                        Germany's ageing population,
                                        combined with high unemployment, has
                                        pushed social security outlays to a
                                        level exceeding contributions from
                                        workers. Structural rigidities in
                                        the labor market - including strict
                                        regulations on laying off workers
                                        and the setting of wages on a
                                        national basis - have made
                                        unemployment a chronic problem.
                                        Business and income tax cuts
                                        introduced in 2001 did not spare
                                        Germany from the impact of the
                                        downturn in international trade, and
                                        domestic demand faltered as
                                        unemployment began to rise. The
                                        government expects growth to gain
                                        pace in the second half of 2002, but
                                        to fall short of 1% for the year
                                        again. Corporate restructuring and
                                        growing capital markets are setting
                                        the foundations that could allow
                                        Germany to meet the long-term
                                        challenges of European economic
                                        integration and globalization,
                                        particularly if labor market
                                        rigidities are addressed.
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.174
                                        trillion (2001 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,200
                                        (2001 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%
                                        industry: 28%
                                        services: 71% (2000)
         Population below poverty line: NA%
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.6%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
   Distribution of family income - Gini 30 (1994)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2001)
                           Labor force: 41.9 million (2001)
           Labor force - by occupation: industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%,
                                        services 63.8% (1999)
                     Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2001)
                                Budget: revenues: $802 billion
                                        expenditures: $825 billion,
                                        including capital expenditures of
                                        $NA (2001 est.)
                            Industries: among the world's largest and most
                                        technologically advanced producers
                                        of iron, steel, coal, cement,
                                        chemicals, machinery, vehicles,
                                        machine tools, electronics, food and
                                        beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
     Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
              Electricity - production: 537.328 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 63.08%
                                        hydro: 3.65%
                                        other: 3.27% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 30%
             Electricity - consumption: 501.716 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 42.5 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 44.5 billion kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar
                                        beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle,
                                        pigs, poultry
                               Exports: $560.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                 Exports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals,
                                        metals and manufactures, foodstuffs,
                    Exports - partners: EU 56% (France 11%, UK 8%, Italy 8%,
                                        Netherlands 6%, Belgium/Luxembourg
                                        5%), US 10%, Japan 2% (2000)
                               Imports: $472.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                 Imports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals,
                                        foodstuffs, textiles, metals
                    Imports - partners: EU 52% (France 10%, Netherlands 9%,
                                        Italy 7%, UK 7%, Belgium/Luxembourg
                                        5%), US 9%, Japan 5% (2000)
                       Debt - external: $NA
                  Economic aid - donor: ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
                              Currency: euro (EUR); deutsche mark (DEM)
                                        note: on 1 January 1999, the
                                        European Monetary Union introduced
                                        the euro as a common currency to be
                                        used by financial institutions of
                                        member countries; on 1 January 2002,
                                        the euro became the sole currency
                                        for everyday transactions within the
                                        member countries
                         Currency code: EUR; DEM
                        Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
                                        (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
                                        1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
                                        deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69
                                        (January 1999), 1.7597 (1998),
                                        1.7341 (1997)
                           Fiscal year: calendar year
   Communications Germany
        Telephones - main lines in use: 50.9 million (March 2001)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 55.3 million (June 2001)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: Germany has one
                                        of the world's most technologically
                                        advanced telecommunications systems;
                                        as a result of intensive capital
                                        expenditures since reunification,
                                        the formerly backward system of the
                                        eastern part of the country, dating
                                        back to World War II, has been
                                        modernized and integrated with that
                                        of the western part
                                        domestic: Germany is served by an
                                        extensive system of automatic
                                        telephone exchanges connected by
                                        modern networks of fiber-optic
                                        cable, coaxial cable, microwave
                                        radio relay, and a domestic
                                        satellite system; cellular telephone
                                        service is widely available,
                                        expanding rapidly, and includes
                                        roaming service to many foreign
                                        international: Germany's
                                        international service is excellent
                                        worldwide, consisting of extensive
                                        land and undersea cable facilities
                                        as well as earth stations in the
                                        INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and
                                        INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                Radios: 77.8 million (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
                           Televisions: 51.4 million (1998)
                 Internet country code: .de
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 200 (2001)
                        Internet users: 28.64 million (2001)
   Transportation Germany
                              Railways: total: 44,000 km (including at least
                                        20,300 km electrified); most routes
                                        are double- or multiple-track
                                        note: since privatization in 1994,
                                        Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer
                                        publishes details of the track it
                                        owns; in addition to the DBAG system
                                        there are 102 privately owned
                                        railway companies which own
                                        approximately 3,000 to 4,000 km of
                                        track (2001 est.)
                              Highways: total: 656,140 km
                                        paved: 650,891 km (including 11,400
                                        km of expressways)
                                        unpaved: 5,249 km (all-weather)
                                        (1998 est.)
                             Waterways: 7,500 km
                                        note: major rivers include the Rhine
                                        and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important
                                        connection between the Baltic Sea
                                        and North Sea (1999)
                             Pipelines: crude oil 2,240 km (2001)
                     Ports and harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen,
                                        Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden,
                                        Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe,
                                        Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim,
                                        Rostock, Stuttgart
                       Merchant marine: total: 388 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                        totaling 5,758,942 GRT/7,132,525 DWT
                                        ships by type: cargo 132, chemical
                                        tanker 10, container 219, liquefied
                                        gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker
                                        7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
                                        cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-
                                        sea passenger 7
                                        note: includes some foreign-owned
                                        ships registered here as a flag of
                                        convenience: Chile 1, Finland 5,
                                        Iceland 1, Netherlands 3,
                                        Switzerland 1 (2002 est.)
                              Airports: 625 (2001)
         Airports - with paved runways: total: 325
                                        over 3,047 m: 11
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 67
                                        under 914 m: 127 (2001)
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
       Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 300
                                        under 914 m: 238 (2001)
                                        over 3,047 m: 2
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 51
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                             Heliports: 59 (2001)
   Military Germany
                      Military branches: Army, Navy (including naval air
                                         arm), Air Force, Medical Corps,
                                         Joint Support Service
       Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
       Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 20,854,329 (2002
    Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 17,734,977 (2002
                                service: est.)
            Military manpower - reaching males: 482,318 (2002 est.)
                  military age annually:
          Military expenditures - dollar $38.8 billion (2002)
      Military expenditures - percent of 1.38% (2002)
   Transnational Issues Germany
              Disputes - international: none
                         Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for
                                        South American cocaine processors;
                                        transshipment point for and consumer
                                        of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin
                                        American cocaine, and European-
                                        produced synthetic drugs

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