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World Gazetteer Results for Pestretsy:
Alternate NamesPestrecy
Original NamesПестрецы
Geographical TypeLocality
Administrative DivisionTatarstan
Dictionary Results for Russia:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
    n 1: a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern
         Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other
         soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and
         others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991 [syn:
         Soviet Union, Russia, Union of Soviet Socialist
         Republics, USSR]
    2: formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR
       occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia [syn: Soviet
       Russia, Russia, Russian Soviet Federated Socialist
    3: a former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created
       in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital; powerful in
       the 17th and 18th centuries under Peter the Great and
       Catherine the Great when Saint Petersburg was the capital;
       overthrown by revolution in 1917
    4: a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia;
       formerly Soviet Russia; since 1991 an independent state [syn:
       Russia, Russian Federation]

2. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Russia \Rus"sia\, n.
   A country of Europe and Asia.
   [1913 Webster]

   Russia iron, a kind of sheet iron made in Russia, having a
      lustrous blue-black surface.

   Russia leather, a soft kind of leather, made originally in
      Russia but now elsewhere, having a peculiar odor from
      being impregnated with an oil obtained from birch bark. It
      is much used in bookbinding, on account of its not being
      subject to mold, and being proof against insects.

   Russia matting, matting manufactured in Russia from the
      inner bark of the linden (Tilia Europaea).
      [1913 Webster]

3. CIA World Factbook 2002

   Introduction Russia
                            Background: The defeat of the Russian Empire in
                                        World War I led to the seizure of
                                        power by the Communists and the
                                        formation of the USSR. The brutal
                                        rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53)
                                        strengthened Russian dominance of
                                        the Soviet Union at a cost of tens
                                        of millions of lives. The Soviet
                                        economy and society stagnated in the
                                        following decades until General
                                        Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-
                                        91) introduced glasnost (openness)
                                        and perestroika (restructuring) in
                                        an attempt to modernize Communism,
                                        but his initiatives inadvertently
                                        released forces that by December
                                        1991 splintered the USSR into 15
                                        independent republics. Since then,
                                        Russia has struggled in its efforts
                                        to build a democratic political
                                        system and market economy to replace
                                        the strict social, political, and
                                        economic controls of the Communist
                                        period. A determined guerrilla
                                        conflict still plagues Russia in
   Geography Russia
                              Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the
                                        Urals is sometimes included with
                                        Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean,
                                        between Europe and the North Pacific
                Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E
                        Map references: Asia
                                  Area: total: 17,075,200 sq km
                                        water: 79,400 sq km
                                        land: 16,995,800 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the
                                        size of the US
                       Land boundaries: total: 19,990 km
                                        border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km,
                                        Belarus 959 km, China (southeast)
                                        3,605 km, China (south) 40 km,
                                        Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km,
                                        Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km,
                                        North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km,
                                        Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227
                                        km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196
                                        km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206
                                        km, Ukraine 1,576 km
                             Coastline: 37,653 km
                       Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                        the depth of exploitation
                                        exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                        territorial sea: 12 NM
                               Climate: ranges from steppes in the south
                                        through humid continental in much of
                                        European Russia; subarctic in
                                        Siberia to tundra climate in the
                                        polar north; winters vary from cool
                                        along Black Sea coast to frigid in
                                        Siberia; summers vary from warm in
                                        the steppes to cool along Arctic
                               Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of
                                        Urals; vast coniferous forest and
                                        tundra in Siberia; uplands and
                                        mountains along southern border
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
                                        highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m
                     Natural resources: wide natural resource base including
                                        major deposits of oil, natural gas,
                                        coal, and many strategic minerals,
                                        note: formidable obstacles of
                                        climate, terrain, and distance
                                        hinder exploitation of natural
                              Land use: arable land: 7.46%
                                        permanent crops: 0.11%
                                        other: 92.43% (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: 46,630 sq km (1998 est.)
                       Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a
                                        major impediment to development;
                                        volcanic activity in the Kuril
                                        Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes
                                        on the Kamchatka Peninsula
          Environment - current issues: air pollution from heavy industry,
                                        emissions of coal-fired electric
                                        plants, and transportation in major
                                        cities; industrial, municipal, and
                                        agricultural pollution of inland
                                        waterways and seacoasts;
                                        deforestation; soil erosion; soil
                                        contamination from improper
                                        application of agricultural
                                        chemicals; scattered areas of
                                        sometimes intense radioactive
                                        contamination; groundwater
                                        contamination from toxic waste
            Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                            agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                        Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-
                                        Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
                                        Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                        Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
                                        Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                        Endangered Species, Environmental
                                        Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
                                        of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
                                        Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                        Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                        Wetlands, Whaling
                                        signed, but not ratified: Air
                                        Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate
                                        Change-Kyoto Protocol
                      Geography - note: largest country in the world in
                                        terms of area but unfavorably
                                        located in relation to major sea
                                        lanes of the world; despite its
                                        size, much of the country lacks
                                        proper soils and climates (either
                                        too cold or too dry) for
                                        agriculture; Mount Elbrus is
                                        Europe's tallest peak
   People Russia
                            Population: 144,978,573 (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.7% (male 12,334,659;
                                        female 11,840,058)
                                        15-64 years: 70.2% (male 49,330,660;
                                        female 52,402,610)
                                        65 years and over: 13.1% (male
                                        6,150,775; female 12,919,811) (2002
                Population growth rate: -0.33% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 9.71 births/1,000 population (2002
                            Death rate: 13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                    Net migration rate: 0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/
                                        total population: 0.88 male(s)/
                                        female (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 19.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.5 years
                                        female: 72.97 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 62.29 years
                  Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.18% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 130,000 (1999 est.)
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: 850 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: Russian(s)
                                        adjective: Russian
                         Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian
                                        3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%,
                                        Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%,
                                        other 8.1%
                             Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
                             Languages: Russian, other
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                        and write
                                        total population: 98%
                                        male: 100%
                                        female: 97% (1989 est.)
   Government Russia
                          Country name: conventional long form: Russian
                                        conventional short form: Russia
                                        local long form: Rossiyskaya
                                        former: Russian Empire, Russian
                                        Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
                                        local short form: Rossiya
                       Government type: federation
                               Capital: Moscow
              Administrative divisions: 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular -
                                        oblast), 21 republics* (respublik,
                                        singular - respublika), 10
                                        autonomous okrugs**(avtonomnykh
                                        okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy
                                        okrug), 6 krays*** (krayev, singular
                                        - kray), 2 federal cities (singular
                                        - gorod)****, and 1 autonomous
                                        oblast*****(avtonomnaya oblast');
                                        Adygeya (Maykop)*, Aginskiy
                                        Buryatskiy (Aginskoye)**, Altay
                                        (Gorno-Altaysk)*, Altayskiy
                                        (Barnaul)***, Amurskaya
                                        (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'skaya,
                                        Astrakhanskaya, Bashkortostan
                                        (Ufa)*, Belgorodskaya, Bryanskaya,
                                        Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)*, Chechnya
                                        (Groznyy)*, Chelyabinskaya,
                                        Chitinskaya, Chukotskiy (Anadyr')**,
                                        Chuvashiya (Cheboksary)*, Dagestan
                                        (Makhachkala)*, Evenkiyskiy
                                        (Tura)**, Ingushetiya (Nazran')*,
                                        Irkutskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kabardino-
                                        Balkariya (Nal'chik)*,
                                        Kaliningradskaya, Kalmykiya
                                        (Elista)*, Kaluzhskaya, Kamchatskaya
                                        Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk)*,
                                        Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)*,
                                        Kemerovskaya, Khabarovskiy***,
                                        Khakasiya (Abakan)*, Khanty-
                                        Mansiyskiy (Khanty-Mansiysk)**,
                                        Kirovskaya, Komi (Syktyvkar)*,
                                        Koryakskiy (Palana)**, Kostromskaya,
                                        Krasnodarskiy***, Krasnoyarskiy***,
                                        Kurganskaya, Kurskaya,
                                        Leningradskaya, Lipetskaya,
                                        Magadanskaya, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-
                                        Ola)*, Mordoviya (Saransk)*,
                                        Moskovskaya, Moskva (Moscow)****,
                                        Murmanskaya, Nenetskiy (Nar'yan-
                                        Mar)**, Nizhegorodskaya,
                                        Novgorodskaya, Novosibirskaya,
                                        Omskaya, Orenburgskaya, Orlovskaya
                                        (Orel), Penzenskaya, Permskaya,
                                        Komi-Permyatskiy (Kudymkar)**,
                                        Primorskiy (Vladivostok)***,
                                        Pskovskaya, Rostovskaya,
                                        Ryazanskaya, Sakha (Yakutiya)*,
                                        Sakhalinskaya (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk),
                                        Samarskaya, Sankt-Peterburg (Saint
                                        Petersburg)****, Saratovskaya,
                                        Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya [North
                                        Ossetia] (Vladikavkaz)*,
                                        Smolenskaya, Stavropol'skiy***,
                                        Sverdlovskaya (Yekaterinburg),
                                        Tambovskaya, Tatarstan (Kazan')*,
                                        Taymyrskiy (Dudinka)**, Tomskaya,
                                        Tul'skaya, Tverskaya, Tyumenskaya,
                                        Tyva (Kyzyl)*, Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)*,
                                        Ul'yanovskaya, Ust'-Ordynskiy
                                        Buryatskiy (Ust'-Ordynskiy)**,
                                        Vladimirskaya, Volgogradskaya,
                                        Vologodskaya, Voronezhskaya, Yamalo-
                                        Nenetskiy (Salekhard)**,
                                        Yaroslavskaya, Yevreyskaya*****;
                                        note - when using a place name with
                                        an adjectival ending 'skaya' or
                                        'skiy,' the word Oblast' or
                                        Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be
                                        added to the place name
                                        note: administrative divisions have
                                        the same names as their
                                        administrative centers (exceptions
                                        have the administrative center name
                                        following in parentheses)
                          Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                      National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
                          Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993
                          Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial
                                        review of legislative acts
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir
                                        Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting
                                        president since 31 December 1999,
                                        president since 7 May 2000)
                                        head of government: Premier Mikhail
                                        Mikhaylovich KASYANOV (since 7 May
                                        2000); Deputy Premiers Aleksey
                                        Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 18 May
                                        2000), Aleksey Vasilyevich GORDEYEV
                                        (since 20 May 2000), Viktor
                                        Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 31 May
                                        1999), Valentina Ivanovna MATVIYENKO
                                        (since 22 September 1998)
                                        cabinet: Ministries of the
                                        Government or "Government" composed
                                        of the premier and his deputies,
                                        ministers, and other agency heads;
                                        all are appointed by the president
                                        note: there is also a Presidential
                                        Administration (PA) that provides
                                        staff and policy support to the
                                        president, drafts presidential
                                        decrees, and coordinates policy
                                        among government agencies; a
                                        Security Council also reports
                                        directly to the president
                                        election results: Vladimir
                                        Vladimirovich PUTIN elected
                                        president; percent of vote -
                                        Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN 52.9%,
                                        Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV 29.2%,
                                        Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY
                                        elections: president elected by
                                        popular vote for a four-year term;
                                        election last held 26 March 2000
                                        (next to be held NA 2004); note - no
                                        vice president; if the president
                                        dies in office, cannot exercise his
                                        powers because of ill health, is
                                        impeached, or resigns, the premier
                                        succeeds him; the premier serves as
                                        acting president until a new
                                        presidential election is held, which
                                        must be within three months; premier
                                        appointed by the president with the
                                        approval of the Duma
                    Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
                                        Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of
                                        the Federation Council or Sovet
                                        Federatsii (178 seats; as of July
                                        2000, members appointed by the top
                                        executive and legislative officials
                                        in each of the 89 federal
                                        administrative units - oblasts,
                                        krays, republics, autonomous okrugs
                                        and oblasts, and the federal cities
                                        of Moscow and Saint Petersburg;
                                        members serve four-year terms) and
                                        the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya
                                        Duma (450 seats; 225 seats elected
                                        by proportional representation from
                                        party lists winning at least 5% of
                                        the vote, and 225 seats from single-
                                        member constituencies; members are
                                        elected by direct popular vote to
                                        serve four-year terms)
                                        election results: State Duma -
                                        percent of vote received by parties
                                        clearing the 5% threshold entitling
                                        them to a proportional share of the
                                        225 party list seats - KPRF 24.29%,
                                        Unity 23.32%, OVR 13.33%, Union of
                                        Right Forces 8.52%, LDPR 5.98%,
                                        Yabloko 5.93%; seats by party - KPRF
                                        113, Unity 72, OVR 67, Union of
                                        Rightist Forces 29, LDPR 17, Yabloko
                                        21, other 16, independents 106,
                                        repeat election required 8, vacant 1
                                        elections: State Duma - last held 19
                                        December 1999 (next to be held NA
                                        December 2003)
                       Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court;
                                        Superior Court of Arbitration;
                                        judges for all courts are appointed
                                        for life by the Federation Council
                                        on the recommendation of the
         Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Mikhail Ivanovich
                                        LAPSHIN]; Communist Party of the
                                        Russian Federation or KPRF [Gennadiy
                                        Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Fatherland-
                                        All Russia or OVR [Yuriy
                                        Mikhaylovich LUZHKOV]; Liberal
                                        Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR
                                        [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY];
                                        Union of Rightist Forces [Anatoliy
                                        Borisovich CHUBAYS, Yegor Timurovich
                                        GAYDAR, Irina Mutsuovna KHAKAMADA,
                                        Boris Yefimovich NEMTSOV]; Unity
                                        [Sergey Kuzhugetovich SHOYGU];
                                        Yabloko Bloc [Grigoriy Alekseyevich
                                        note: some 150 political parties,
                                        blocs, and movements registered with
                                        the Justice Ministry as of the 19
                                        December 1998 deadline to be
                                        eligible to participate in the 19
                                        December 1999 Duma elections; of
                                        these, 36 political organizations
                                        actually qualified to run slates of
                                        candidates on the Duma party list
                                        ballot, 6 parties cleared the 5%
                                        threshold to win a proportional
                                        share of the 225 party seats in the
                                        Duma, 9 other organizations hold
                                        seats in the Duma: Bloc of Nikolayev
                                        and Academician Fedorov, Congress of
                                        Russian Communities, Movement in
                                        Support of the Army, Our Home Is
                                        Russia, Party of Pensioners, Power
                                        to the People, Russian All-People's
                                        Union, Russian Socialist Party, and
                                        Spiritual Heritage; primary
                                        political blocs include pro-market
                                        democrats - (Yabloko Bloc and Union
                                        of Right Forces), anti-market and/or
                                        ultranationalist (Communist Party of
                                        the Russian Federation and Liberal
                                        Democratic Party of Russia)
          Political pressure groups and NA
             International organization APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), ASEAN
                         participation: (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS,
                                        CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC,
                                        EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD,
                                        ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC,
                                        IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                        IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA
                                        (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM
                                        (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW,
                                        OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security
                                        Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                        UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE,
                                        UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC,
                                        UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU,
                                        WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
                                        (observer), ZC
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy
                                        Viktorovich USHAKOV
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
                                        consulate(s) general: New York, San
                                        Francisco, and Seattle
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701,
                                        5704, 5708
                                        chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
                                        Washington, DC 20007
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                    US: Alexander VERSHBOW
                                        embassy: Bolshoy Devyatinskiy
                                        Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
                                        mailing address: APO AE 09721
                                        telephone: [7] (095) 728-5000
                                        FAX: [7] (095) 728-5203
                                        consulate(s) general: Saint
                                        Petersburg, Vladivostok,
                      Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                        white (top), blue, and red
   Economy Russia
                    Economy - overview: A decade after the implosion of the
                                        Soviet Union in December 1991,
                                        Russia is still struggling to
                                        establish a modern market economy
                                        and achieve strong economic growth.
                                        In contrast to its trading partners
                                        in Central Europe - which were able
                                        to overcome the initial production
                                        declines that accompanied the launch
                                        of market reforms within three to
                                        five years - Russia saw its economy
                                        contract for five years, as the
                                        executive and legislature dithered
                                        over the implementation of many of
                                        the basic foundations of a market
                                        economy. Russia achieved a slight
                                        recovery in 1997, but the
                                        government's stubborn budget
                                        deficits and the country's poor
                                        business climate made it vulnerable
                                        when the global financial crisis
                                        swept through in 1998. The crisis
                                        culminated in the August
                                        depreciation of the ruble, a debt
                                        default by the government, and a
                                        sharp deterioration in living
                                        standards for most of the
                                        population. The economy subsequently
                                        has rebounded, growing by an average
                                        of more than 6% annually in 1999-
                                        2001 on the back of higher oil
                                        prices and a weak ruble. This
                                        recovery, along with a renewed
                                        government effort in 2000 and 2001
                                        to advance lagging structural
                                        reforms, have raised business and
                                        investor confidence over Russia's
                                        prospects in its second decade of
                                        transition. Yet serious problems
                                        persist. Russia remains heavily
                                        dependent on exports of commodities,
                                        particularly oil, natural gas,
                                        metals, and timber, which account
                                        for over 80% of exports, leaving the
                                        country vulnerable to swings in
                                        world prices. Russia's industrial
                                        base is increasingly dilapidated and
                                        must be replaced or modernized if
                                        the country is to achieve
                                        sustainable economic growth. Other
                                        problems include widespread
                                        corruption, lack of a strong legal
                                        system, capital flight, and brain
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2
                                        trillion (2001 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (2001 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,300
                                        (2001 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7%
                                        industry: 37%
                                        services: 56% (2000 est.)
         Population below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.4%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: 33.5% (2001 est.)
   Distribution of family income - Gini 39.9 (2000)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21.9% (2001 est.)
                           Labor force: 71.3 million (2001 est.)
           Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 10.8%, industry 27.8%,
                                        services 61.4% (2001 est.)
                     Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2001 est.), plus considerable
                                Budget: revenues: $45 billion
                                        expenditures: $43 billion, including
                                        capital expenditures of $NA (2001
                            Industries: complete range of mining and
                                        extractive industries producing
                                        coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and
                                        metals; all forms of machine
                                        building from rolling mills to high-
                                        performance aircraft and space
                                        vehicles; shipbuilding; road and
                                        rail transportation equipment;
                                        communications equipment;
                                        agricultural machinery, tractors,
                                        and construction equipment; electric
                                        power generating and transmitting
                                        equipment; medical and scientific
                                        instruments; consumer durables,
                                        textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
     Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2001 est.)
              Electricity - production: 835.572 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 66.14%
                                        hydro: 18.89%
                                        other: 0.31% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 14.66%
             Electricity - consumption: 767.082 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 18 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 8 billion kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
                                        vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
                               Exports: $103.3 billion (2001 est.)
                 Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products,
                                        natural gas, wood and wood products,
                                        metals, chemicals, and a wide
                                        variety of civilian and military
                    Exports - partners: Germany 9.0%, US 7.2%, Italy 7.0%,
                                        Belarus 5.4%, China 5.1%, Ukraine
                                        4.9%, Netherlands (2000)
                               Imports: $51.7 billion (2001 est.)
                 Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer
                                        goods, medicines, meat, grain,
                                        sugar, semifinished metal products
                    Imports - partners: Germany 11.5%, Belarus 11.1%,
                                        Ukraine 10.8%, US 8.0%, Kazakhstan
                                        6.5%, Italy 3.6% (2000)
                       Debt - external: $157 billion (2001 est.)
              Economic aid - recipient: $8.523 billion (1995)
                              Currency: Russian ruble (RUR)
                         Currency code: RUR
                        Exchange rates: Russian rubles per US dollar -
                                        30.4669 (January 2002), 29.1685
                                        (2001), 28.1292 (2000), 24.6199
                                        (1999), 9.7051 (1998), 5,785 (1997)
                                        note: the post-1 January 1998 ruble
                                        is equal to 1,000 of the pre-
                                        1 January 1998 rubles
                           Fiscal year: calendar year
   Communications Russia
        Telephones - main lines in use: 30 million (1998)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.5 million (October 2000)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: the telephone
                                        system has undergone significant
                                        changes in the 1990s; there are more
                                        than 1,000 companies licensed to
                                        offer communication services; access
                                        to digital lines has improved,
                                        particularly in urban centers;
                                        Internet and e-mail services are
                                        improving; Russia has made progress
                                        toward building the
                                        telecommunications infrastructure
                                        necessary for a market economy;
                                        however, a large demand for main
                                        line service remains unsatisfied
                                        domestic: cross-country digital
                                        trunk lines run from Saint
                                        Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from
                                        Moscow to Novorossiysk; the
                                        telephone systems in 60 regional
                                        capitals have modern digital
                                        infrastructures; cellular services,
                                        both analog and digital, are
                                        available in many areas; in rural
                                        areas, the telephone services are
                                        still outdated, inadequate, and low
                                        international: Russia is connected
                                        internationally by three undersea
                                        fiber-optic cables; digital switches
                                        in several cities provide more than
                                        50,000 lines for international
                                        calls; satellite earth stations
                                        provide access to Intelsat,
                                        Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat,
                                        and Orbita systems
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 420, FM 447, shortwave 56 (1998)
                                Radios: 61.5 million (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: 7,306 (1998)
                           Televisions: 60.5 million (1997)
                 Internet country code: .ru
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (2000)
                        Internet users: 9.2 million (2000)
   Transportation Russia
                              Railways: total: 87,157 km
                                        broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge
                                        (40,300 km are electrified)
                                        narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge
                                        (installed on Sakhalin Island)
                                        note: an additional 63,000 km of
                                        broad gauge routes serve specific
                                        industries and are not available for
                                        common carrier use (2002)
                              Highways: total: 952,000 km
                                        paved: 752,000 km (including about
                                        336,000 km of conventionally paved
                                        roads, and about 416,000 km of roads
                                        with all-weather gravel surfaces)
                                        unpaved: 200,000 km (these roads are
                                        made of unstabilized earth and are
                                        difficult to negotiate in wet
                                        weather) (1998)
                             Waterways: 95,900 km (total routes in general
                                        note: routes with navigation guides
                                        serving the Russian River Fleet -
                                        95,900 km; routes with night
                                        navigational aids - 60,400 km; man-
                                        made navigable routes - 16,900 km
                                        (Jan 1994)
                             Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum
                                        products 15,000 km; natural gas
                                        140,000 km (June 1993 est.)
                     Ports and harbors: Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky,
                                        Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', De-Kastri,
                                        Indigirskiy, Kaliningrad,
                                        Kandalaksha, Kazan', Khabarovsk,
                                        Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lazarev, Mago,
                                        Mezen', Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka,
                                        Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Onega,
                                        Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Rostov,
                                        Shakhtersk, Saint Petersburg, Sochi,
                                        Taganrog, Tuapse, Uglegorsk, Vanino,
                                        Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy,
                       Merchant marine: total: 888 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                        totaling 4,390,745 GRT/5,357,436 DWT
                                        ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk
                                        21, cargo 556, chemical tanker 7,
                                        combination bulk 21, combination
                                        ore/oil 6, container 29, multi-
                                        functional large-load carrier 1,
                                        passenger 41, passenger/cargo 3,
                                        petroleum tanker 153, refrigerated
                                        cargo 22, roll on/roll off 20,
                                        short-sea passenger 7
                                        note: includes some foreign-owned
                                        ships registered here as a flag of
                                        convenience: Belize 1, Cambodia 1,
                                        Cyprus 9, Denmark 1, Estonia 4,
                                        Greece 3, Honduras 1, Latvia 4,
                                        Lithuania 3, Moldova 3, Netherlands
                                        1, South Korea 1, Turkey 18,
                                        Turkmenistan 2, Ukraine 10, United
                                        Kingdom 5, United States 1 (2002
                              Airports: 2,743 (2001)
         Airports - with paved runways: total: 471
                                        over 3,047 m: 56
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 178
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 69
                                        under 914 m: 92 (2001)
       Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2,272
                                        over 3,047 m: 28
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 118
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 204
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 324
                                        under 914 m: 1,598 (2001)
   Military Russia
                       Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces,
                                          Space Forces, Airborne Forces,
                                          Strategic Rocket Forces
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 38,906,796 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 30,392,946 (2002
                                 service: est.)
    Military manpower - reaching military males: 1,242,778 (2002 est.)
                            age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $NA
       Military expenditures - percent of NA%
   Transnational Issues Russia
              Disputes - international: 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness,
                                        Friendship, and Cooperation commits
                                        Russia and China to seek peaceable
                                        unanimity over disputed alluvial
                                        islands at the confluence of the
                                        Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small
                                        island on the Argun; Russia hastens
                                        to delimit and demarcate boundary
                                        with Kazakhstan to limit illegal
                                        border activities; in 2002, Russia
                                        is the first state to submit data to
                                        the UN Commission on the Limits of
                                        the Continental Shelf to extend its
                                        continental shelf by claiming two
                                        undersea ridges in the Arctic;
                                        Russia signed bilateral agreements
                                        with Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan
                                        delimiting the Caspian seabed, but
                                        littoral states are far from
                                        multilateral agreement on dividing
                                        the waters and seabed regimes - Iran
                                        insists on division of Caspian Sea
                                        into five equal sectors while
                                        Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
                                        Turkmenistan have generally agreed
                                        upon equidistant seabed boundaries;
                                        despite recent discussions, Russia
                                        and Norway dispute their maritime
                                        limits in the Barents Sea and
                                        Russia's fishing rights beyond
                                        Svalbard's territorial limits within
                                        the Svalbard Treaty zone; Russia
                                        continues to reject signing and
                                        ratifying the joint December 1996
                                        technical border agreement with
                                        Estonia; the Russian Duma refuses to
                                        ratify boundary treaties signed with
                                        Latvia and Lithuania; Russia and
                                        Ukraine have successfully delimited
                                        land boundary in 2001, but disagree
                                        on delimitation of maritime boundary
                                        in the Sea of Azov and Black Sea;
                                        boundary with Georgia has been
                                        largely delimited, but not
                                        demarcated; several small, strategic
                                        segments remain in dispute; islands
                                        of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan,
                                        and the Habomai group occupied by
                                        the Soviet Union in 1945, now
                                        administered by Russia, claimed by
                         Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of illicit
                                        cannabis and opium poppy and
                                        producer of amphetamine, mostly for
                                        domestic consumption; government has
                                        active eradication program;
                                        increasingly used as transshipment
                                        point for Southwest and Southeast
                                        Asian opiates and cannabis and Latin
                                        American cocaine to Western Europe,
                                        possibly to the US, and growing
                                        domestic market; major source of
                                        heroin precursor chemicals;
                                        corruption and organized crime are
                                        major concerns; heroin an increasing
                                        threat in domestic drug market

4. U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000)
Russia, OH -- U.S. village in Ohio
   Population (2000):    551
   Housing Units (2000): 206
   Land area (2000):     0.645213 sq. miles (1.671095 sq. km)
   Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
   Total area (2000):    0.645213 sq. miles (1.671095 sq. km)
   FIPS code:            69344
   Located within:       Ohio (OH), FIPS 39
   Location:             40.234696 N, 84.410416 W
   ZIP Codes (1990):     45363
   Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
    Russia, OH

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