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World Gazetteer Results for Perevalsk:
Original NamesПеревальськ
Geographical TypeLocality
Administrative DivisionLuhanska
Dictionary Results for Ukraine:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
    n 1: a republic in southeastern Europe; formerly a European
         soviet; the center of the original Russian state which came
         into existence in the ninth century [syn: Ukraine,

2. CIA World Factbook 2002

   Introduction Ukraine
                            Background: Richly endowed in natural resources,
                                        Ukraine has been fought over and
                                        subjugated for centuries; its 20th-
                                        century struggle for liberty is not
                                        yet complete. A short-lived
                                        independence from Russia (1917-1920)
                                        was followed by brutal Soviet rule
                                        that engineered two artificial
                                        famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in
                                        which over 8 million died, and World
                                        War II, in which German and Soviet
                                        armies were responsible for some 7
                                        million more deaths. Although
                                        independence was attained in 1991
                                        with the dissolution of the USSR,
                                        true freedom remains elusive as many
                                        of the former Soviet elite remain
                                        entrenched, stalling efforts at
                                        economic reform, privatization, and
                                        civil liberties.
   Geography Ukraine
                              Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black
                                        Sea, between Poland and Russia
                Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E
                        Map references: Asia, Europe
                                  Area: total: 603,700 sq km
                                        water: 0 sq km
                                        land: 603,700 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas
                       Land boundaries: total: 4,663 km
                                        border countries: Belarus 891 km,
                                        Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km,
                                        Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169
                                        km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia
                                        1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km
                             Coastline: 2,782 km
                       Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m or to the
                                        depth of exploitation
                                        exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                        territorial sea: 12 NM
                               Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean
                                        only on the southern Crimean coast;
                                        precipitation disproportionately
                                        distributed, highest in west and
                                        north, lesser in east and southeast;
                                        winters vary from cool along the
                                        Black Sea to cold farther inland;
                                        summers are warm across the greater
                                        part of the country, hot in the
                               Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile
                                        plains (steppes) and plateaus,
                                        mountains being found only in the
                                        west (the Carpathians), and in the
                                        Crimean Peninsula in the extreme
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
                                        highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
                     Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural
                                        gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite,
                                        titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel,
                                        mercury, timber, arable land
                              Land use: arable land: 57.1%
                                        permanent crops: 1.73%
                                        other: 41.17% (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: 24,540 sq km (1998 est.)
                       Natural hazards: NA
          Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable
                                        water; air and water pollution;
                                        deforestation; radiation
                                        contamination in the northeast from
                                        1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear
                                        Power Plant
            Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                            agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                        Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-
                                        Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                        Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
                                        Change, Endangered Species,
                                        Environmental Modification,
                                        Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                        Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
                                        Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
                                        signed, but not ratified: Air
                                        Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                        Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur
                                        94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
                                        Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
                                        Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
                      Geography - note: strategic position at the crossroads
                                        between Europe and Asia; second-
                                        largest country in Europe
   People Ukraine
                            Population: 48,396,470 (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 4,147,344;
                                        female 3,970,343)
                                        15-64 years: 68.7% (male 15,881,821;
                                        female 17,366,172)
                                        65 years and over: 14.5% (male
                                        2,341,885; female 4,688,905) (2002
                Population growth rate: -0.72% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 9.59 births/1,000 population (2002
                            Death rate: 16.4 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                    Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/
                                        total population: 0.86 male(s)/
                                        female (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 21.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.33 years
                                        female: 72.06 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 60.86 years
                  Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.96% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 240,000 (1999 est.)
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,000 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: Ukrainian(s)
                                        adjective: Ukrainian
                         Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish
                                        1%, other 4%
                             Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow
                                        Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox -
                                        Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian
                                        Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian
                                        Catholic (Uniate), Protestant,
                             Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian,
                                        Polish, Hungarian
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                        and write
                                        total population: 98%
                                        male: 100%
                                        female: 97% (1989 est.)
   Government Ukraine
                          Country name: conventional long form: none
                                        conventional short form: Ukraine
                                        local long form: none
                                        former: Ukrainian National Republic,
                                        Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet
                                        Socialist Republic
                                        local short form: Ukrayina
                       Government type: republic
                               Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
              Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1
                                        autonomous republic* (avtomnaya
                                        respublika), and 2 municipalities
                                        (mista, singular - misto) with
                                        oblast status**; Cherkas'ka
                                        (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka
                                        (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka
                                        (Chernivtsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka
                                        (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka
                                        (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka
                                        (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka
                                        (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson),
                                        Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy),
                                        Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad),
                                        Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka
                                        (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv),
                                        Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka
                                        (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava),
                                        Avtonomna Respublika Krym*
                                        (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne),
                                        Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy),
                                        Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'),
                                        Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka
                                        (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod),
                                        Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya),
                                        Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr); note - when
                                        using a place name with an
                                        adjectival ending 's'ka' or 'z'ka,'
                                        the word Oblast' should be added to
                                        the place name
                                        note: oblasts have the
                                        administrative center name following
                                        in parentheses
                          Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                      National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)
                          Constitution: adopted 28 June 1996
                          Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial
                                        review of legislative acts
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: President Leonid D.
                                        KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)
                                        head of government: Prime Minister
                                        Anatoliy KINAKH (since 29 May 2001),
                                        First Deputy Prime Minister Oleh
                                        DUBYNA (since 29 May 2001)
                                        cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                        appointed by the president and
                                        approved by the Supreme Council
                                        elections: president elected by
                                        popular vote for a five-year term;
                                        election last held 31 October and 14
                                        November 1999 (next to be held NA
                                        2004); prime minister and deputy
                                        prime ministers appointed by the
                                        president and approved by the
                                        Supreme Council
                                        election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA
                                        elected president; percent of vote -
                                        Leonid KUCHMA 57.7%, Petro SYMONENKO
                                        note: there is also a National
                                        Security and Defense Council or NSDC
                                        originally created in 1992 as the
                                        National Security Council, but
                                        significantly revamped and
                                        strengthened under President KUCHMA;
                                        the NSDC staff is tasked with
                                        developing national security policy
                                        on domestic and international
                                        matters and advising the president;
                                        a Presidential Administration that
                                        helps draft presidential edicts and
                                        provides policy support to the
                                        president; and a Council of Regions
                                        that serves as an advisory body
                                        created by President KUCHMA in
                                        September 1994 that includes
                                        chairmen of the Kyyiv (Kiev) and
                                        Sevastopol' municipalities and
                                        chairmen of the oblasti
                    Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or
                                        Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; under
                                        Ukraine's new election law, 225 of
                                        the Supreme Council's seats are
                                        allocated on a proportional basis to
                                        those parties that gain 4% or more
                                        of the national electoral vote; the
                                        other 225 members are elected by
                                        popular vote in single-mandate
                                        constituencies; all serve four-year
                                        election results: percent of vote by
                                        party - Our Ukraine 24%, For One
                                        Ukraine 12%, CPU 20%, Social-
                                        Democratic Party of Ukraine 6%, SPU
                                        7%, Juliya Tymochenko Election Bloc
                                        7%, other 24%; seats by party - Our
                                        Ukraine 112, For One Ukraine 101,
                                        CPU 67, Social-Democratic Party of
                                        Ukraine 24, SPU 23, Juliya
                                        Tymochenko Election Bloc 21,
                                        Democratic Party of Ukraine 4, Unity
                                        3, others 95
                                        elections: last held 31 March 2002
                                        (next to be held NA 2006)
                       Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
         Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Mykhaylo HLADIY];
                                        Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU
                                        [Petro SYMONENKO]; Democratic Union
                                        [Oleksandr OMELCHENKO]; Fatherland
                                        (Motherland) All Ukrainian Party
                                        [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, chairperson];
                                        For One Ukraine [leader NA]; Green
                                        Party of Ukraine or PZU [Vitaliy
                                        KONONOV, chairman]; Juliya
                                        Tymochenko Election Bloc [leader
                                        NA]; Liberal Party [Volodymyr
                                        SHCHERBAN]; Our Ukraine [leader NA];
                                        Party of Industrialists and
                                        Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH];
                                        Party of Regions [Volodymyr
                                        SEMYNOZHENKO]; Party of Ukrainian
                                        Unity [Ivan BILAS]; Peasant Party of
                                        Ukraine or SelPU [Serhiy DOVHAN];
                                        People's Democratic Party or PDP
                                        [Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO, chairman];
                                        People's Movement of Ukraine or Rukh
                                        U [Hennadiy UDOVENKO, chairman];
                                        Progressive Socialist Party
                                        [Nataliya VITRENKO]; Reforms
                                        Congress [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Social-
                                        Democratic Party of Ukraine (United)
                                        [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]; Socialist Party
                                        of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ,
                                        chairman]; Solidarity [Petro
                                        POROSHENKO]; Trudova Ukrayina/
                                        Working Ukraine [Viktor PINCHUK,
                                        chairman]; Ukrainian Popular
                                        Movement or Rukh K [Yuriy KOSTENKO,
                                        chairman]; Unity [Oleksandr
                                        OMELCHENKO]; Working Ukraine/Labort
                                        Ukraine [Serhiy TYHYPKO]; Yabluko
                                        note: and numerous smaller parties
          Political pressure groups and NA
             International organization BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
                         participation: ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC,
                                        IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                        IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM
                                        (observer), NSG, OAS (observer),
                                        OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL,
                                        UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
                                        UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT,
                                        UNMOVIC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                        WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                        Konstantin Ivanovych HRYSHCHENKO
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
                                        consulate(s) general: Chicago and
                                        New York
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606
                                        chancery: 3350 M Street NW,
                                        Washington, DC 20007
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos
                                    US: PASCUAL
                                        embassy: 10 Yurii Kotsiubynskyi
                                        Street, Kiev 01901
                                        mailing address: use embassy street
                                        telephone: [380] (44) 490-4000
                                        FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350
                      Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of azure
                                        (top) and golden yellow represent
                                        grainfields under a blue sky
   Economy Ukraine
                    Economy - overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic
                                        was far and away the most important
                                        economic component of the former
                                        Soviet Union, producing about four
                                        times the output of the next-ranking
                                        republic. Its fertile black soil
                                        generated more than one-fourth of
                                        Soviet agricultural output, and its
                                        farms provided substantial
                                        quantities of meat, milk, grain, and
                                        vegetables to other republics.
                                        Likewise, its diversified heavy
                                        industry supplied the unique
                                        equipment (for example, large
                                        diameter pipes) and raw materials to
                                        industrial and mining sites
                                        (vertical drilling apparatus) in
                                        other regions of the former USSR.
                                        Ukraine depends on imports of
                                        energy, especially natural gas, to
                                        meet some 85% of its annual energy
                                        requirements. Shortly after
                                        independence in late 1991, the
                                        Ukrainian Government liberalized
                                        most prices and erected a legal
                                        framework for privatization, but
                                        widespread resistance to reform
                                        within the government and the
                                        legislature soon stalled reform
                                        efforts and led to some
                                        backtracking. Output by 1999 had
                                        fallen to less than 40% the 1991
                                        level. Loose monetary policies
                                        pushed inflation to
                                        hyperinflationary levels in late
                                        1993. Ukraine's dependence on Russia
                                        for energy supplies and the lack of
                                        significant structural reform have
                                        made the Ukrainian economy
                                        vulnerable to external shocks. Now
                                        in his second term, President KUCHMA
                                        has pledged to reduce the number of
                                        government agencies, streamline the
                                        regulatory process, create a legal
                                        environment to encourage
                                        entrepreneurs, and enact a
                                        comprehensive tax overhaul. Reforms
                                        in the more politically sensitive
                                        areas of structural reform and land
                                        privatization are still lagging.
                                        Outside institutions - particularly
                                        the IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to
                                        quicken the pace and scope of
                                        reforms and have threatened to
                                        withdraw financial support. GDP in
                                        2000 showed strong export-based
                                        growth of 6% - the first growth
                                        since independence - and industrial
                                        production grew 12.9%. The economy
                                        continued to expand in 2001 as real
                                        GDP rose 9% and industrial output
                                        grew by over 14%. Growth was
                                        undergirded by strong domestic
                                        demand and growing consumer and
                                        investor confidence.
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $205
                                        billion (2001 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: 9% (2001 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,200
                                        (2001 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%
                                        industry: 40%
                                        services: 47% (2000 est.)
         Population below poverty line: 29% (2001 est.)
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.7%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: 23.2% (1999)
   Distribution of family income - Gini 30 (1999)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (2001 est.)
                           Labor force: 22.8 million (yearend 1997)
           Labor force - by occupation: industry 32%, agriculture 24%,
                                        services 44% (1996)
                     Unemployment rate: 3.6% officially registered; large
                                        number of unregistered or
                                        underemployed workers (November
                                Budget: revenues: $10.2 billion
                                        expenditures: $11.1 billion,
                                        including capital expenditures of
                                        $NA (2002 est.)
                            Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and
                                        nonferrous metals, machinery and
                                        transport equipment, chemicals, food
                                        processing (especially sugar)
     Industrial production growth rate: 14.2% (2001 est.)
              Electricity - production: 163.57 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 49.54%
                                        hydro: 7.02%
                                        other: 0.01% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 43.44%
             Electricity - consumption: 151.72 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 400 million kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds,
                                        vegetables; beef, milk
                               Exports: $17.3 billion (2001 est.)
                 Exports - commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel
                                        and petroleum products, machinery
                                        and transport equipment, food
                    Exports - partners: Russia 22.6%, Turkey 6.2%, Italy
                                        5.1%, Germany (2001 est.)
                               Imports: $17.1 billion (2001 est.)
                 Imports - commodities: energy, machinery and parts,
                                        transportation equipment, chemicals
                    Imports - partners: Russia 36.9%, Turkmenistan 10.5%,
                                        Germany 8.7%, US (2001 est.)
                       Debt - external: $11.8 billion (2001)
              Economic aid - recipient: $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended
                                        Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)
                              Currency: hryvnia (UAH)
                         Currency code: UAH
                        Exchange rates: hryvnia per US dollar - 5.3126
                                        (January 2002), 5.3722 (2001),
                                        5.4402 (2000), 4.1304 (1999), 2.4495
                                        (1998), 1.8617 (1997)
                           Fiscal year: calendar year
   Communications Ukraine
        Telephones - main lines in use: 9.45 million (April 1999)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 236,000 (1998)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: Ukraine's
                                        telecommunication development plan,
                                        running through 2005, emphasizes
                                        improving domestic trunk lines,
                                        international connections, and the
                                        mobile cellular system
                                        domestic: at independence in
                                        December 1991, Ukraine inherited a
                                        telephone system that was
                                        antiquated, inefficient, and in
                                        disrepair; more than 3.5 million
                                        applications for telephones could
                                        not be satisfied; telephone density
                                        is now rising slowly and the
                                        domestic trunk system is being
                                        improved; the mobile cellular
                                        telephone system is expanding at a
                                        high rate
                                        international: two new domestic
                                        trunk lines are a part of the fiber-
                                        optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system
                                        and three Ukrainian links have been
                                        installed in the fiber-optic Trans-
                                        European Lines (TEL) project which
                                        connects 18 countries; additional
                                        international service is provided by
                                        the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia
                                        (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable
                                        and by earth stations in the
                                        Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik
                                        satellite systems
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 134, FM 289, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                Radios: 45.05 million (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: at least 33 (plus 21 repeaters that
                                        relay broadcasts from Russia) (1997)
                           Televisions: 18.05 million (1997)
                 Internet country code: .ua
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 260 (2001)
                        Internet users: 750,000 (2001)
   Transportation Ukraine
                              Railways: total: 22,510 km
                                        broad gauge: 21,951 km 1.524-m gauge
                                        (8,927 km electrified)
                                        standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge
                                        note: these data do not include
                                        railroads dedicated to serving
                                        industry and not in common carrier
                                        service (2001)
                                        narrow gauge: 510 km 0.750-m gauge
                              Highways: total: 273,700 km
                                        paved: 236,400 km (including 1,770
                                        km of expressways and a substantial
                                        amount of all-weather roads with
                                        gravel surfaces)
                                        unpaved: 37,300 km (these roads are
                                        made of unstabilized earth and are
                                        difficult to negotiate in wet
                                        weather) (1990)
                             Waterways: 4,499 km
                                        note: 1,672 km are on the Pryp'yat'
                                        and Dniester (Dnister) (1990)
                             Pipelines: crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum
                                        products 4,500 km (1995); natural
                                        gas 34,400 km (1998)
                     Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Feodosiya, Illichivs'k,
                                        Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev
                                        (Kyyiv), Kiliya, Mariupol',
                                        Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni, Sevastopol',
                                        Yalta, Yuzhnyy
                       Merchant marine: total: 138 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                        totaling 669,303 GRT/707,857 DWT
                                        ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 100,
                                        container 3, liquefied gas 2,
                                        passenger 11, passenger/cargo 1,
                                        petroleum tanker 12, railcar carrier
                                        note: includes some foreign-owned
                                        ships registered here as a flag of
                                        convenience: Cyprus 1, Greece 1,
                                        Panama 1, Russia 4, Saint Vincent
                                        and the Grenadines 1 (2002 est.)
                              Airports: 718 (2001)
         Airports - with paved runways: total: 114
                                        over 3,047 m: 14
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 50
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                        under 914 m: 26 (2001)
       Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 604
                                        over 3,047 m: 13
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 37
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 45
                                        under 914 m: 457 (2001)
   Military Ukraine
                      Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air
                                         Force, Air Defense Forces, Interior
                                         Troops, Border Troops
       Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
       Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 12,263,178 (2002
    Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 9,616,864 (2002
                                service: est.)
   Military manpower - reaching military males: 390,823 (2002 est.)
                           age annually:
          Military expenditures - dollar $500 million (FY99)
      Military expenditures - percent of 1.4% (FY99)
   Transnational Issues Ukraine
              Disputes - international: Ukraine and Romania have yet to
                                        resolve claims over Ukrainian-
                                        administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island
                                        and delimitation of Black Sea
                                        maritime boundary, despite 1997
                                        bilateral treaty to find a solution
                                        in two years and numerous talks;
                                        Russia and Ukraine have successfully
                                        delimited land boundary in 2001, but
                                        disagree on delimitation of maritime
                                        boundary in the Sea of Azov and
                                        Black Sea; Moldovan difficulties
                                        with break-away Transnistria region
                                        inhibit establishment of a joint
                                        customs regime with Ukraine to
                                        curtail smuggling, arms transfers,
                                        and other illegal activities
                         Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and
                                        opium poppy, mostly for CIS
                                        consumption; some synthetic drug
                                        production for export to West;
                                        limited government eradication
                                        program; used as transshipment point
                                        for opiates and other illicit drugs
                                        from Africa, Latin America, and
                                        Turkey, and to Europe and Russia;
                                        drug-related money laundering a
                                        minor, but growing, problem

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