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World Gazetteer Results for Pencaitland:
Geographical TypeLocality
CountryUnited Kingdom
Administrative DivisionScotland
3rd Administrative DivisionSeine-et-Marne
Dictionary Results for United Kingdom:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
United Kingdom
    n 1: a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the
         British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales
         and Northern Ireland; `Great Britain' is often used loosely
         to refer to the United Kingdom [syn: United Kingdom,
         UK, U.K., Britain, United Kingdom of Great Britain
         and Northern Ireland, Great Britain]

2. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Kingdom \King"dom\, n. [AS. cyningd[=o]m. See 2d King, and
   1. The rank, quality, state, or attributes of a king; royal
      authority; sovereign power; rule; dominion; monarchy.
      [1913 Webster]

            Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom. --Ps. cxiv.
      [1913 Webster]

            When Jehoram was risen up to the kingdom of his
            father, he strengthened himself.      --2 Chron.
                                                  xxi. 4.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. The territory or country subject to a king or queen; the
      dominion of a monarch; the sphere in which one is king or
      has control.
      [1913 Webster]

            Unto the kingdom of perpetual night.  --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

            You're welcome,
            Most learned reverend sir, into our kingdom. --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. An extensive scientific division distinguished by leading
      or ruling characteristics; a principal division; a
      department; as, the mineral kingdom. In modern biology,
      the division of life into five kingdoms is widely used for
      classification. "The animal and vegetable kingdoms."
      [1913 Webster +PJC]

   Animal kingdom. See under Animal.

   Kingdom of God.
      (a) The universe.
      (b) That spiritual realm of which God is the acknowledged
      (c) The authority or dominion of God.

   Mineral kingdom. See under Mineral.

   United Kingdom. See under United.

   Vegetable kingdom. See under Vegetable.

   Syn: Realm; empire; dominion; monarchy; sovereignty; domain.
        [1913 Webster]

3. CIA World Factbook 2002
United Kingdom

   Introduction United Kingdom
                            Background: Great Britain, the dominant
                                        industrial and maritime power of the
                                        19th century, played a leading role
                                        in developing parliamentary
                                        democracy and in advancing
                                        literature and science. At its
                                        zenith, the British Empire stretched
                                        over one-fourth of the earth's
                                        surface. The first half of the 20th
                                        century saw the UK's strength
                                        seriously depleted in two World
                                        Wars. The second half witnessed the
                                        dismantling of the Empire and the UK
                                        rebuilding itself into a modern and
                                        prosperous European nation. As one
                                        of five permanent members of the UN
                                        Security Council, a founding member
                                        of NATO, and of the Commonwealth,
                                        the UK pursues a global approach to
                                        foreign policy; it currently is
                                        weighing the degree of its
                                        integration with continental Europe.
                                        A member of the EU, it chose to
                                        remain outside the European Monetary
                                        Union for the time being.
                                        Constitutional reform is also a
                                        significant issue in the UK. The
                                        Scottish Parliament, the National
                                        Assembly for Wales, and the Northern
                                        Ireland Assembly were established in
   Geography United Kingdom
                              Location: Western Europe, islands including
                                        the northern one-sixth of the island
                                        of Ireland between the North
                                        Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea,
                                        northwest of France
                Geographic coordinates: 54 00 N, 2 00 W
                        Map references: Europe
                                  Area: total: 244,820 sq km
                                        water: 3,230 sq km
                                        note: includes Rockall and Shetland
                                        land: 241,590 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon
                       Land boundaries: total: 360 km
                                        border countries: Ireland 360 km
                             Coastline: 12,429 km
                       Maritime claims: continental shelf: as defined in
                                        continental shelf orders or in
                                        accordance with agreed upon
                                        exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
                                        territorial sea: 12 NM
                               Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing
                                        southwest winds over the North
                                        Atlantic Current; more than one-half
                                        of the days are overcast
                               Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low
                                        mountains; level to rolling plains
                                        in east and southeast
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Fenland -4 m
                                        highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
                     Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin,
                                        limestone, iron ore, salt, clay,
                                        chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable
                              Land use: arable land: 26.41%
                                        permanent crops: 0.18%
                                        other: 73.41% (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: 1,080 sq km (1998 est.)
                       Natural hazards: winter windstorms; floods
          Environment - current issues: continues to reduce greenhouse gas
                                        emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol
                                        target of a 12.5% reduction from
                                        1990 levels and intends to meet the
                                        legally binding target and move
                                        towards a domestic goal of a 20% cut
                                        in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the
                                        Government aims to reduce the amount
                                        of industrial and commercial waste
                                        disposed of in landfill sites to 85%
                                        of 1998 levels and to recycle or
                                        compost at least 25% of household
                                        waste, increasing to 33% by 2015;
                                        between 1998-99 and 1999-2000,
                                        household recycling increased from
                                        8.8% to 10.3%
            Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                            agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                        Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-
                                        Volatile Organic Compounds,
                                        Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
                                        Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
                                        Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
                                        Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                        Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                        Environmental Modification,
                                        Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                        Marine Dumping, Marine Life
                                        Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                        Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                        Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                        Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                        signed, but not ratified: Air
                                        Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                        Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto
                      Geography - note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea
                                        lanes; only 35 km from France and
                                        now linked by tunnel under the
                                        English Channel; because of heavily
                                        indented coastline, no location is
                                        more than 125 km from tidal waters
   People United Kingdom
                            Population: 59,778,002 (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.7% (male 5,732,385;
                                        female 5,443,900)
                                        15-64 years: 65.5% (male 19,803,478;
                                        female 19,381,734)
                                        65 years and over: 15.8% (male
                                        3,931,463; female 5,485,042) (2002
                Population growth rate: 0.21% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 11.34 births/1,000 population (2002
                            Death rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                    Net migration rate: 1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/
                                        total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                        female (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.99 years
                                        female: 80.84 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 75.29 years
                  Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.11% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 20,800 (1999)
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: 450 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: Briton(s), British (collective
                                        adjective: British
                         Ethnic groups: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish
                                        2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West
                                        Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other
                             Religions: Anglican and Roman Catholic 40
                                        million, Muslim 1.5 million,
                                        Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist
                                        760,000, Sikh 500,000, Hindu
                                        500,000, Jewish 350,000
                             Languages: English, Welsh (about 26% of the
                                        population of Wales), Scottish form
                                        of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has
                                        completed five or more years of
                                        total population: 99% (2000 est.)
                                        male: NA%
                                        female: NA%
   Government United Kingdom
                          Country name: conventional long form: United
                                        Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                        Northern Ireland
                                        conventional short form: United
                                        abbreviation: UK
                       Government type: constitutional monarchy
                               Capital: London
              Administrative divisions: England - 47 boroughs, 36 counties*,
                                        29 London boroughs**, 12 cities and
                                        boroughs***, 10 districts****, 12
                                        cities*****, 3 royal boroughs******;
                                        Barking and Dagenham**, Barnet**,
                                        Barnsley, Bath and North East
                                        Somerset****, Bedfordshire*,
                                        Bexley**, Birmingham***, Blackburn
                                        with Darwen, Blackpool, Bolton,
                                        Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest,
                                        Bradford***, Brent**, Brighton and
                                        Hove, City of Bristol*****,
                                        Bromley**, Buckinghamshire*, Bury,
                                        Calderdale, Cambridgeshire*,
                                        Camden**, Cheshire*, Cornwall*,
                                        Coventry***, Croydon**, Cumbria*,
                                        Darlington, Derby*****, Derbyshire*,
                                        Devon*, Doncaster, Dorset*, Dudley,
                                        Durham*, Ealing**, East Riding of
                                        Yorkshire****, East Sussex*,
                                        Enfield**, Essex*, Gateshead,
                                        Gloucestershire*, Greenwich**,
                                        Hackney**, Halton, Hammersmith and
                                        Fulham**, Hampshire*, Haringey**,
                                        Harrow**, Hartlepool, Havering**,
                                        Herefordshire*, Hertfordshire*,
                                        Hillingdon**, Hounslow**, Isle of
                                        Wight*, Islington**, Kensington and
                                        Chelsea******, Kent*, City of
                                        Kingston upon Hull*****, Kingston
                                        upon Thames******, Kirklees,
                                        Knowsley, Lambeth**, Lancashire*,
                                        Leeds***, Leicester*****,
                                        Leicestershire*, Lewisham**,
                                        Lincolnshire*, Liverpool***, City of
                                        London*****, Luton, Manchester***,
                                        Medway, Merton**, Middlesbrough,
                                        Milton Keynes, Newcastle upon
                                        Tyne***, Newham**, Norfolk*,
                                        Northamptonshire*, North East
                                        Lincolnshire****, North
                                        Lincolnshire****, North
                                        Somerset****, North Tyneside,
                                        Northumberland*, North Yorkshire*,
                                        Nottingham*****, Nottinghamshire*,
                                        Oldham, Oxfordshire*,
                                        Peterborough*****, Plymouth*****,
                                        Poole, Portsmouth*****, Reading,
                                        Redbridge**, Redcar and Cleveland,
                                        Richmond upon Thames**, Rochdale,
                                        Rotherham, Rutland****, Salford***,
                                        Shropshire*, Sandwell, Sefton,
                                        Sheffield***, Slough, Solihull,
                                        Somerset*, Southampton*****,
                                        Southend-on-Sea, South
                                        Gloucestershire****, South Tyneside,
                                        Southwark**, Staffordshire*, St.
                                        Helens, Stockport, Stockton-on-Tees,
                                        Stoke-on-Trent*****, Suffolk*,
                                        Sunderland***, Surrey*, Sutton**,
                                        Swindon, Tameside, Telford and
                                        Wrekin****, Thurrock, Torbay, Tower
                                        Hamlets**, Trafford, Wakefield***,
                                        Walsall, Waltham Forest**,
                                        Wandsworth**, Warrington,
                                        Warwickshire*, West Berkshire****,
                                        Westminster***, West Sussex*, Wigan,
                                        Wiltshire*, Windsor and
                                        Maidenhead******, Wirral,
                                        Wokingham****, Wolverhampton,
                                        Worcestershire*, York*****; Northern
                                        Ireland - 24 districts, 2 cities*, 6
                                        counties**; Antrim, County Antrim**,
                                        Ards, Armagh, County Armagh**,
                                        Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge,
                                        Belfast*, Carrickfergus,
                                        Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown,
                                        Craigavon, Down, County Down**,
                                        Dungannon, Fermanagh, County
                                        Fermanagh**, Larne, Limavady,
                                        Lisburn, County Londonderry**,
                                        Derry*, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry
                                        and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North
                                        Down, Omagh, Strabane, County
                                        Tyrone**; Scotland - 32 council
                                        areas; Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire,
                                        Angus, Argyll and Bute, The Scottish
                                        Borders, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries
                                        and Galloway, Dundee City, East
                                        Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East
                                        Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of
                                        Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow
                                        City, Highland, Inverclyde,
                                        Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire,
                                        North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands,
                                        Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire,
                                        Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire,
                                        South Lanarkshire, Stirling, West
                                        Dunbartonshire, Eilean Siar (Western
                                        Isles), West Lothian; Wales - 11
                                        county boroughs, 9 counties*, 2
                                        cities and counties**; Isle of
                                        Anglesey*, Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend,
                                        Caerphilly, Cardiff**, Ceredigion*,
                                        Carmarthenshire*, Conwy,
                                        Denbighshire*, Flintshire*, Gwynedd,
                                        Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire*,
                                        Neath Port Talbot, Newport,
                                        Pembrokeshire*, Powys*, Rhondda
                                        Cynon Taff, Swansea**, Torfaen, The
                                        Vale of Glamorgan*, Wrexham
                       Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian
                                        Ocean Territory, British Virgin
                                        Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland
                                        Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey,
                                        Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat,
                                        Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena,
                                        South Georgia and the South Sandwich
                                        Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
                          Independence: England has existed as a unified
                                        entity since the 10th century; the
                                        union between England and Wales was
                                        enacted under the Statute of
                                        Rhuddlan in 1284; in the Act of
                                        Union of 1707, England and Scotland
                                        agreed to permanent union as Great
                                        Britain; the legislative union of
                                        Great Britain and Ireland was
                                        implemented in 1801, with the
                                        adoption of the name the United
                                        Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                        Ireland; the Anglo-Irish treaty of
                                        1921 formalized a partition of
                                        Ireland; six northern Irish counties
                                        remained part of the United Kingdom
                                        as Northern Ireland and the current
                                        name of the country, the United
                                        Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                        Northern Ireland, was adopted in
                      National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II,
                                        celebrated on the second Saturday in
                                        June (1926)
                          Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly
                                        common law and practice
                          Legal system: common law tradition with early
                                        Roman and modern continental
                                        influences; no judicial review of
                                        Acts of Parliament; accepts
                                        compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
                                        reservations; British courts and
                                        legislation are increasingly subject
                                        to review by European Union courts
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II
                                        (since 6 February 1952); Heir
                                        Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the
                                        queen, born 14 November 1948)
                                        head of government: Prime Minister
                                        Anthony (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 May
                                        cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                        appointed by the prime minister
                                        elections: none; the monarchy is
                                        hereditary; the prime minister is
                                        the leader of the majority party in
                                        the House of Commons (assuming there
                                        is no majority party, a prime
                                        minister would have a majority
                                        coalition or at least a coalition
                                        that was not rejected by the
                    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament comprised of
                                        House of Lords (consists of
                                        approximately 500 life peers, 92
                                        hereditary peers and 26 clergy) and
                                        House of Commons (659 seats; members
                                        are elected by popular vote to serve
                                        five-year terms unless the House is
                                        dissolved earlier)
                                        elections: House of Lords - no
                                        elections (some proposals for
                                        further reform include elections);
                                        House of Commons - last held 7 June
                                        2001 (next to be held by NA May
                                        election results: House of Commons -
                                        percent of vote by party - Labor
                                        42.1%, Conservative and Unionist
                                        32.7%, Liberal Democrats 18.8%,
                                        other 6.4%; seats by party - Labor
                                        412, Conservative and Unionist 166,
                                        Liberal Democrat 52, other 29; note
                                        - seating as of 15 February 2002:
                                        Labor 410, Conservative 164, Liberal
                                        Democrats 53, other 32
                                        note: in 1998 elections were held
                                        for a Northern Ireland Parliament
                                        (because of unresolved disputes
                                        among existing parties, the transfer
                                        of power from London to Northern
                                        Ireland came only at the end of 1999
                                        and was twice rescinded before
                                        reinstatement in November 2001); in
                                        1999 there were elections for a new
                                        Scottish Parliament and a new Welsh
                       Judicial branch: House of Lords (highest court of
                                        appeal; several Lords of Appeal in
                                        Ordinary are appointed by the
                                        monarch for life); Supreme Courts of
                                        England, Wales, and Northern Ireland
                                        (comprising the Courts of Appeal,
                                        the High Courts of Justice, and the
                                        Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of
                                        Session and Court of the Justiciary
         Political parties and leaders: Conservative and Unionist Party
                                        [Iain Duncan SMITH]; Democratic
                                        Unionist Party (Northern Ireland)
                                        [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party
                                        [Anthony (Tony) BLAIR]; Liberal
                                        Democrats [Charles KENNEDY]; Party
                                        of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Ieuan Wyn
                                        JONES]; Scottish National Party or
                                        SNP [John SWINNEY]; Sinn Fein
                                        (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS];
                                        Social Democratic and Labor Party or
                                        SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Mark
                                        DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party
                                        (Northern Ireland) [David TRIMBLE]
          Political pressure groups and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament;
                               leaders: Confederation of British Industry;
                                        National Farmers' Union; Trades
                                        Union Congress
             International organization AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C,
                         participation: CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA
                                        (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA,
                                        ESCAP, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-
                                        10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
                                        ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
                                        IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                        IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM
                                        (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
                                        (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
                                        SPC, UN, UN Security Council,
                                        UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
                                        UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
                                        UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UNU,
                                        UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO,
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sir
                                        Christopher J. R. MEYER
                                        chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue
                                        NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
                                        consulate(s): Dallas, Denver, Miami,
                                        and Seattle
                                        consulate(s) general: Atlanta,
                                        Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston,
                                        Los Angeles, New York, and San
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador William
                                    US: S. FARISH
                                        embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square,
                                        London, W1A1AE
                                        mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40,
                                        FPO AE 09498-4040
                                        telephone: [44] (0) 207499-9000
                                        FAX: [44] (0) 207 629-8288
                                        consulate(s) general: Belfast,
                      Flag description: blue with the red cross of Saint
                                        George (patron saint of England)
                                        edged in white superimposed on the
                                        diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick
                                        (patron saint of Ireland) and which
                                        is superimposed on the diagonal
                                        white cross of Saint Andrew (patron
                                        saint of Scotland); known as the
                                        Union Flag or Union Jack; the design
                                        and colors (especially the Blue
                                        Ensign) have been the basis for a
                                        number of other flags including
                                        other Commonwealth countries and
                                        their constituent states or
                                        provinces, as well as British
                                        overseas territories
   Economy United Kingdom
                    Economy - overview: The UK, a leading trading power and
                                        financial center, is one of the
                                        quartet of trillion dollar economies
                                        of Western Europe. Over the past two
                                        decades the government has greatly
                                        reduced public ownership and
                                        contained the growth of social
                                        welfare programs. Agriculture is
                                        intensive, highly mechanized, and
                                        efficient by European standards,
                                        producing about 60% of food needs
                                        with only 1% of the labor force. The
                                        UK has large coal, natural gas, and
                                        oil reserves; primary energy
                                        production accounts for 10% of GDP,
                                        one of the highest shares of any
                                        industrial nation. Services,
                                        particularly banking, insurance, and
                                        business services, account by far
                                        for the largest proportion of GDP
                                        while industry continues to decline
                                        in importance. GDP growth slipped in
                                        2001 as the global downturn, the
                                        high value of the pound, and the
                                        bursting of the "new economy" bubble
                                        hurt manufacturing and exports.
                                        Still, the economy is one of the
                                        strongest in Europe; inflation,
                                        interest rates, and unemployment
                                        remain low, and the government
                                        expects growth of 2% to 2.5% in
                                        2002. The relatively good economic
                                        performance has complicated the
                                        BLAIR government's efforts to make a
                                        case for Britain to join the
                                        European Economic and Monetary Union
                                        (EMU). The Prime Minister has
                                        pledged to hold a public referendum
                                        if membership meets Chancellor of
                                        the Exchequer BROWN's five economic
                                        "tests." Scheduled for assessment by
                                        mid-2003, the tests will determine
                                        whether joining EMU would have a
                                        positive effect on British
                                        investment, employment, and growth.
                                        Critics point out, however, that the
                                        economy is thriving outside of EMU,
                                        and they point to public opinion
                                        polls that continue to show a
                                        majority of Britons opposed to the
                                        single currency.
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.47
                                        trillion (2001 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2001 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,700
                                        (2001 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.7%
                                        industry: 24.9%
                                        services: 73.4% (1999)
         Population below poverty line: 17%
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.6%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: 27.3% (1991)
   Distribution of family income - Gini 36.1 (1991)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2001 est.)
                           Labor force: 29.7 million (2001)
           Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 25%,
                                        services 74% (1999)
                     Unemployment rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)
                                Budget: revenues: $565 billion
                                        expenditures: $540 billion,
                                        including capital expenditures of
                                        $NA (FY01)
                            Industries: machine tools, electric power
                                        equipment, automation equipment,
                                        railroad equipment, shipbuilding,
                                        aircraft, motor vehicles and parts,
                                        electronics and communications
                                        equipment, metals, chemicals, coal,
                                        petroleum, paper and paper products,
                                        food processing, textiles, clothing,
                                        and other consumer goods
     Industrial production growth rate: -1.6% (2001 est.)
              Electricity - production: 355.761 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 73.26%
                                        hydro: 1.46%
                                        other: 2.31% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 22.97%
             Electricity - consumption: 345.032 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 134 million kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 14.308 billion kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: cereals, oilseed, potatoes,
                                        vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry;
                               Exports: $287 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                 Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, fuels,
                                        chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
                    Exports - partners: EU 54% (Germany 11%, France 9%,
                                        Netherlands 7%, Ireland 7%), US 15%
                               Imports: $337 billion (c.i.f., 2001)
                 Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery,
                                        fuels; foodstuffs
                    Imports - partners: EU 48% (Germany 11%, France 7%,
                                        Netherlands 6%), US 13%, Japan 5%
                       Debt - external: $NA
                  Economic aid - donor: ODA, $4.5 billion (2000)
                              Currency: British pound (GBP)
                         Currency code: GBP
                        Exchange rates: British pounds per US dollar -
                                        0.6981 (January 2002), 0.6944
                                        (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180
                                        (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997)
                           Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
   Communications United Kingdom
        Telephones - main lines in use: 34.878 million (1997)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: technologically
                                        advanced domestic and international
                                        domestic: equal mix of buried
                                        cables, microwave radio relay, and
                                        fiber-optic systems
                                        international: 40 coaxial submarine
                                        cables; satellite earth stations -
                                        10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3
                                        Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic
                                        Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at
                                        least 8 large international
                                        switching centers
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998)
                                Radios: 84.5 million (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995)
                           Televisions: 30.5 million (1997)
                 Internet country code: .uk
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 245 (2000)
                        Internet users: 33 million (2001)
   Transportation United Kingdom
                              Railways: total: 16,878 km
                                        standard gauge: 16,536 km 1.435-
                                        m gauge (4,928 km electrified;
                                        12,591 km double- or multiple-
                                        broad gauge: 342 km 1.600-m gauge
                                        (190 km double-tracked)
                                        note: all 1.600-m gauge track is in
                                        common carrier service in Northern
                                        Ireland (1996)
                              Highways: total: 371,603 km
                                        paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303
                                        km of expressways)
                                        unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)
                             Waterways: 3,200 km
                             Pipelines: crude oil (almost all insignificant)
                                        933 km; petroleum products 2,993 km;
                                        natural gas 12,800 km
                     Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff,
                                        Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe,
                                        Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith,
                                        Liverpool, London, Manchester,
                                        Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth,
                                        Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe,
                                        Tees, Tyne
                       Merchant marine: total: 212 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                        totaling 4,308,232 GRT/4,171,757 DWT
                                        ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 32,
                                        chemical tanker 13, combination ore/
                                        oil 1, container 53, liquefied gas
                                        3, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 1,
                                        petroleum tanker 48, refrigerated
                                        cargo 4, roll on/roll off 26, short-
                                        sea passenger 10, specialized tanker
                                        note: includes some foreign-owned
                                        ships registered here as a flag of
                                        convenience: Bermuda 1, Cyprus 1,
                                        Denmark 21, Germany 6, Greece 3,
                                        Hong Kong 4, Italy 1, Monaco 4,
                                        Netherlands 1, Norway 9, Russia 1,
                                        South Africa 2, Sweden 11, Taiwan 2,
                                        United States 5 (2002 est.)
                              Airports: 470 (2001)
         Airports - with paved runways: total: 332
                                        over 3,047 m: 8
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 84
                                        under 914 m: 57 (2001)
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 150
       Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 138
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 23
                                        under 914 m: 114 (2001)
                             Heliports: 13 (2001)
   Military United Kingdom
                       Military branches: Army, Royal Navy (including Royal
                                          Marines), Royal Air Force
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 14,632,418 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 12,151,734 (2002
                                 service: est.)
   Military expenditures - dollar figure: $31.7 billion (2002)
       Military expenditures - percent of 2.32% (2002)
   Transnational Issues United Kingdom
              Disputes - international: Spain and UK are discussing "total
                                        shared sovereignty" over Gibraltar,
                                        subject to a constitutional
                                        referendum by Gibraltarians, who
                                        have largely expressed opposition to
                                        any form of cession to Spain;
                                        Mauritius and Seychelles claim the
                                        Chagos Archipelago (British Indian
                                        Ocean Territory) and its former
                                        inhabitants, who reside chiefly in
                                        Mauritius, but in 2001 were granted
                                        UK citizenship and the right to
                                        repatriation since eviction in 1965;
                                        Argentina claims the Falkland
                                        Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South
                                        Georgia and the South Sandwich
                                        Islands; Rockall continental shelf
                                        dispute involving Denmark and
                                        Iceland; territorial claim in
                                        Antarctica (British Antarctic
                                        Territory) overlaps Argentine claim
                                        and partially overlaps Chilean
                                        claim; disputes with Iceland,
                                        Denmark, and Ireland over the Faroe
                                        Islands continental shelf boundary
                                        outside 200 NM
                         Illicit drugs: gateway country for Latin American
                                        cocaine entering the European
                                        market; major consumer of synthetic
                                        drugs, producer of limited amounts
                                        of synthetic drugs and synthetic
                                        precursor chemicals; major consumer
                                        of Southwest Asian heroin; money-
                                        laundering center

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