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World Gazetteer Results for Penalonga:
Alternate NamesPenhalonga
Geographical TypeLocality
Administrative DivisionManicaland
2nd Administrative DivisionMutasa
Dictionary Results for Zimbabwe:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
    n 1: a landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly
         called Rhodesia; achieved independence from the United
         Kingdom in 1980 [syn: Zimbabwe, Republic of Zimbabwe,
         Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia]

2. CIA World Factbook 2002

   Introduction Zimbabwe
                            Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia
                                        from the South Africa Company in
                                        1923. A 1961 constitution was
                                        formulated that favored whites in
                                        power. In 1965 the government
                                        unilaterally declared its
                                        independence, but the UK did not
                                        recognize the act and demanded more
                                        complete voting rights for the black
                                        African majority in the country
                                        (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions
                                        and a guerrilla uprising finally led
                                        to free elections in 1979 and
                                        independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980.
                                        Robert MUGABE, the nation's first
                                        prime minister, has been the
                                        country's only ruler (as president
                                        since 1987) and has dominated the
                                        country's political system since
   Geography Zimbabwe
                              Location: Southern Africa, between South
                                        Africa and Zambia
                Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 30 00 E
                        Map references: Africa
                                  Area: total: 390,580 sq km
                                        water: 3,910 sq km
                                        land: 386,670 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly larger than Montana
                       Land boundaries: total: 3,066 km
                                        border countries: Botswana 813 km,
                                        Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa
                                        225 km, Zambia 797 km
                             Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                       Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                               Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude;
                                        rainy season (November to March)
                               Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher
                                        central plateau (high veld);
                                        mountains in east
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde
                                        and Save rivers 162 m
                                        highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
                     Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold,
                                        nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium,
                                        lithium, tin, platinum group metals
                              Land use: arable land: 8.4%
                                        permanent crops: 0.34%
                                        other: 91.26% (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: 1,170 sq km (1998 est.)
                       Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and
                                        severe storms are rare
          Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land
                                        degradation; air and water
                                        pollution; the black rhinoceros herd
                                        - once the largest concentration of
                                        the species in the world - has been
                                        significantly reduced by poaching;
                                        poor mining practices have led to
                                        toxic waste and heavy metal
            Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                            agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                        Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
                                        signed, but not ratified: none of
                                        the selected agreements
                      Geography - note: landlocked; the Zambezi forms a
                                        natural riverine boundary with
                                        Zambia; in full flood (February-
                                        April) the massive Victoria Falls on
                                        the river forms the world's largest
                                        curtain of falling water
   People Zimbabwe
                            Population: 11,376,676
                                        note: estimates for this country
                                        explicitly take into account the
                                        effects of excess mortality due to
                                        AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                        expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                        and death rates, lower population
                                        and growth rates, and changes in the
                                        distribution of population by age
                                        and sex than would otherwise be
                                        expected (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.9% (male 2,178,073;
                                        female 2,128,287)
                                        15-64 years: 58.4% (male 3,376,850;
                                        female 3,268,315)
                                        65 years and over: 3.7% (male
                                        213,286; female 211,865) (2002 est.)
                Population growth rate: 0.05% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 24.59 births/1,000 population (2002
                            Death rate: 24.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                    Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        note: there is a small but steady
                                        flow of Zimbabweans into South
                                        Africa in search of better paid
                                        employment (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/
                                        total population: 1.03 male(s)/
                                        female (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 62.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 36.5 years
                                        female: 35.1 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 37.87 years
                  Total fertility rate: 3.21 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 25.06% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1.5 million (1999 est.)
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: 160,000 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: Zimbabwean(s)
                                        adjective: Zimbabwean
                         Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%,
                                        other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white
                                        less than 1%
                             Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part
                                        indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian
                                        25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim
                                        and other 1%
                             Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele
                                        (the language of the Ndebele,
                                        sometimes called Ndebele), numerous
                                        but minor tribal dialects
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                        and write English
                                        total population: 85%
                                        male: 90%
                                        female: 80% (1995 est.)
   Government Zimbabwe
                          Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                        conventional short form: Zimbabwe
                                        former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
                       Government type: parliamentary democracy
                               Capital: Harare
              Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with
                                        provincial status; Bulawayo*,
                                        Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland
                                        Central, Mashonaland East,
                                        Mashonaland West, Masvingo,
                                        Matabeleland North, Matabeleland
                                        South, Midlands
                          Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)
                      National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
                          Constitution: 21 December 1979
                          Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English
                                        common law
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: Executive President
                                        Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31
                                        December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents
                                        Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31
                                        December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA
                                        (since 23 December 1999); note - the
                                        president is both the chief of state
                                        and head of government
                                        head of government: Executive
                                        President Robert Gabriel MUGABE
                                        (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice
                                        Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA
                                        (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph
                                        MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note
                                        - the president is both the chief of
                                        state and head of government
                                        cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                        president; responsible to the House
                                        of Assembly
                                        elections: presidential candidates
                                        nominated with a nomination paper
                                        signed by at least 10 registered
                                        voters (at least one from each
                                        province) and elected by popular
                                        vote; election last held 9-11 March
                                        2002 (next to be held NA March
                                        2006); co-vice presidents appointed
                                        by the president
                                        election results: Robert Gabriel
                                        MUGABE reelected president; percent
                                        of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE
                                        56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
                    Legislative branch: unicameral parliament, called House
                                        of Assembly (150 seats - 120 elected
                                        by popular vote for five-year terms,
                                        12 nominated by the president, 10
                                        occupied by traditional chiefs
                                        chosen by their peers, and 8
                                        occupied by provincial governors
                                        appointed by the president)
                                        elections: last held 24-25 June 2000
                                        (next to be held NA 2005)
                                        election results: percent of vote by
                                        party - ZANU-PF 47.2%, MDC 45.6%,
                                        ZANU-Ndonga 0.7%, United Parties
                                        0.7%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 63,
                                        MDC 56, ZANU-Ndonga 1
                       Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court
         Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democratic Change or
                                        MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; United
                                        Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe
                                        African National Union-Ndonga or
                                        ZANU-Ndonga [leader NA]; Zimbabwe
                                        African National Union-Patriotic
                                        Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel
                                        MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples
                                        Union or ZAPU [Paul SIWELA]
          Political pressure groups and National Constitutional Assembly or
                               leaders: NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
             International organization ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15,
                         participation: G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
                                        IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                        Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
                                        ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN,
                                        UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU,
                                        WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Simbi
                                        Veke MUBAKO
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
                                        chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue
                                        NW, Washington, DC 20009
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph
                                    US: G. SULLIVAN
                                        embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue,
                                        mailing address: P. O. Box 3340,
                                        telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 and
                                        FAX: [263] (4) 796488
                      Flag description: seven equal horizontal bands of
                                        green, yellow, red, black, red,
                                        yellow, and green with a white
                                        isosceles triangle edged in black
                                        with its base on the hoist side; a
                                        yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed
                                        on a red five-pointed star in the
                                        center of the triangle
   Economy Zimbabwe
                    Economy - overview: The government of Zimbabwe faces a
                                        wide variety of difficult economic
                                        problems as it struggles to
                                        consolidate earlier moves to develop
                                        a market-oriented economy. Its
                                        involvement in the war in the
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo,
                                        for example, has already drained
                                        hundreds of millions of dollars from
                                        the economy. Badly needed support
                                        from the IMF has been suspended
                                        because of the country's failure to
                                        meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose
                                        from an annual rate of 32% in 1998
                                        to 59% in 1999, to 60% in 2000, and
                                        to 100% by yearend 2001. The economy
                                        is being steadily weakened by
                                        excessive government deficits, AIDS,
                                        and rampant inflation. The
                                        government's land reform program,
                                        characterized by chaos and violence,
                                        has derailed the commercial sector,
                                        the traditional source of exports
                                        and foreign exchange and the
                                        provider of 400,000 jobs.
                                        Distribution of income is extremely
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $28
                                        billion (2001 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: -6.5% (2001 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,450
                                        (2001 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11%
                                        industry: 14%
                                        services: 75% (2000 est.)
         Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.8%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: 46.9% (1990)
   Distribution of family income - Gini 56.8 (1990-91)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (2001)
                           Labor force: 5.5 million (2000 est.)
           Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 24%,
                                        industry 10% (1996 est.)
                     Unemployment rate: 60% (2001 est.)
                                Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion
                                        expenditures: $2.6 billion,
                                        including capital expenditures of
                                        $NA (2000 est.)
                            Industries: mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel,
                                        tin, clay, numerous metallic and
                                        nonmetallic ores), steel, wood
                                        products, cement, chemicals,
                                        fertilizer, clothing and footwear,
                                        foodstuffs, beverages
     Industrial production growth rate: -10% (2001 est.)
              Electricity - production: 6.425 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.31%
                                        hydro: 46.69%
                                        other: 0% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 0%
             Electricity - consumption: 10.475 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 4.5 billion kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat,
                                        coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle,
                                        sheep, goats, pigs
                               Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                 Exports - commodities: tobacco 30%, gold 11%, ferroalloys
                                        9%, textile/clothing 3% (2000)
                    Exports - partners: South Africa 12.1%, UK 8.5%, Japan
                                        7.7%, Germany 6.1%, China 5.4%
                               Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                 Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment
                                        34%, other manufactures 18%,
                                        chemicals 17%, fuels 11% (1999)
                    Imports - partners: South Africa 46.3%, UK 7.2%, Germany
                                        2.5%, US 2.8%, Japan 2.5% (2000
                       Debt - external: $5 billion (2001 est.)
              Economic aid - recipient: $200 million (2000 est.)
                              Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)
                         Currency code: ZWD
                        Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar -
                                        54.9451 (December 2001), 54.9451
                                        (2001), 43.2900 (2000), 38.3142
                                        (1999), 21.4133 (1998), 11.8906
                           Fiscal year: 1 January - 31 December
   Communications Zimbabwe
        Telephones - main lines in use: 212,000 (in addition, there are
                                        about 20,000 fixed telephones in
                                        wireless local loop connections)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 111,000 (2001)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: system was once
                                        one of the best in Africa, but now
                                        suffers from poor maintenance; more
                                        than 100,000 outstanding requests
                                        for connection despite an equally
                                        large number of installed but unused
                                        main lines
                                        domestic: consists of microwave
                                        radio relay links, open-wire lines,
                                        radiotelephone communication
                                        stations, fixed wireless local loop
                                        installations, and a substantial
                                        mobile cellular network; Internet
                                        connection is available in Harare
                                        and planned for all major towns and
                                        for some of the smaller ones
                                        international: satellite earth
                                        stations - 2 Intelsat; two
                                        international digital gateway
                                        exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater
                                        stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
                                Radios: 1.14 million (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: 16 (1997)
                           Televisions: 370,000 (1997)
                 Internet country code: .zw
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                        Internet users: 30,000 (1999)
   Transportation Zimbabwe
                              Railways: total: 3,077 km
                                        narrow gauge: 3,077 km 1.067-m gauge
                                        (313 km electrified; 42 km double-
                                        note: includes the 318 km Bulawaya-
                                        Beitbridge Railway Company line
                              Highways: total: 18,338 km
                                        paved: 8,692 km
                                        unpaved: 9,646 km (2002)
                             Waterways: chrome ore is transported from
                                        Harare - by way of the Mazoe River -
                                        to the Zambezi River in Mozambique
                             Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km
                     Ports and harbors: Binga, Kariba
                              Airports: 454 (2001)
         Airports - with paved runways: total: 17
                                        over 3,047 m: 3
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2001)
       Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 437
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 209
                                        under 914 m: 224 (2001)
   Military Zimbabwe
                     Military branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of
                                        Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police
                                        (includes Police Support Unit,
                                        Paramilitary Police)
      Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,057,381 (2002
   Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,898,383 (2002
                               service: est.)
         Military expenditures - dollar $350.6 million (FY01)
     Military expenditures - percent of 3.8% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues Zimbabwe
              Disputes - international: none
                         Illicit drugs: transit point for African cannabis
                                        and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and
                                        methamphetamines destined for the
                                        South African and European markets

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