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Dictionary Results for iceland:
1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
Iceland
    n 1: an island republic on the island of Iceland; became
         independent of Denmark in 1944 [syn: Iceland, Republic
         of Iceland]
    2: a volcanic island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic
       Circle

2. CIA World Factbook 2002
Iceland

   Introduction Iceland
   --------------------
                            Background: Settled by Norwegian and Celtic
                                        (Scottish and Irish) immigrants
                                        during the late 9th and 10th
                                        centuries A.D., Iceland boasts the
                                        world's oldest functioning
                                        legislative assembly, the Althing,
                                        established in 930. Independent for
                                        over 300 years, Iceland was
                                        subsequently ruled by Norway and
                                        Denmark. Fallout from the Askja
                                        volcano of 1875 devastated the
                                        Icelandic economy and caused
                                        widespread famine. Over the next
                                        quarter century, 20% of the island's
                                        population emigrated, mostly to
                                        Canada and the US. Limited home rule
                                        from Denmark was granted in 1874 and
                                        complete independence attained in
                                        1944. Literacy, longevity, income,
                                        and social cohesion are first-rate
                                        by world standards.
  
   Geography Iceland
   -----------------
                              Location: Northern Europe, island between the
                                        Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic
                                        Ocean, northwest of the UK
                Geographic coordinates: 65 00 N, 18 00 W
                        Map references: Arctic Region
                                  Area: total: 103,000 sq km
                                        water: 2,750 sq km
                                        land: 100,250 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky
                       Land boundaries: 0 km
                             Coastline: 4,988 km
                       Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
                                        edge of the continental margin
                                        territorial sea: 12 NM
                                        exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                               Climate: temperate; moderated by North
                                        Atlantic Current; mild, windy
                                        winters; damp, cool summers
                               Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with
                                        mountain peaks, icefields; coast
                                        deeply indented by bays and fiords
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                        highest point: Hvannadalshnukur
                                        2,119 m
                     Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power,
                                        diatomite
                              Land use: arable land: 0.06% NEGL
                                        permanent crops: 0%
                                        other: 99.94% (23% permanent
                                        pastures) (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: NA sq km
                       Natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity
          Environment - current issues: water pollution from fertilizer
                                        runoff; inadequate wastewater
                                        treatment
            Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                            agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                        Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                        Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                        Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                        Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                        Pollution, Wetlands
                                        signed, but not ratified: Air
                                        Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                        Pollutants, Environmental
                                        Modification, Marine Life
                                        Conservation
                      Geography - note: strategic location between Greenland
                                        and Europe; westernmost European
                                        country; Reykjavik is the
                                        northernmost national capital in the
                                        world; more land covered by glaciers
                                        than in all of continental Europe
  
   People Iceland
   --------------
                            Population: 279,384 (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 33,189; female
                                        31,155)
                                        15-64 years: 65.1% (male 91,704;
                                        female 90,199)
                                        65 years and over: 11.9% (male
                                        14,828; female 18,309) (2002 est.)
                Population growth rate: 0.52% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 14.37 births/1,000 population (2002
                                        est.)
                            Death rate: 6.93 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                        est.)
                    Net migration rate: -2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/
                                        female
                                        total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                        (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 3.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                        est.)
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.66 years
                                        female: 82.07 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 77.42 years
                  Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.14% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 200 (1999 est.)
                                  AIDS:
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: Icelander(s)
                                        adjective: Icelandic
                         Ethnic groups: homogeneous mixture of descendants
                                        of Norse and Celts
                             Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 93%, other
                                        Protestant and Roman Catholic, none
                                        (1997)
                             Languages: Icelandic
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                        and write
                                        total population: 99.9% (1997 est.)
                                        male: NA%
                                        female: NA%
  
   Government Iceland
   ------------------
                          Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                        Iceland
                                        conventional short form: Iceland
                                        local short form: Island
                                        local long form: Lydhveldidh Island
                       Government type: constitutional republic
                               Capital: Reykjavik
              Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular -
                                        sysla) and 14 independent towns*
                                        (kaupstadhir, singular -
                                        kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*,
                                        Arnessysla, Austur-
                                        Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-
                                        Hunavatnssysla, Austur-
                                        Skaftafellssysla,
                                        Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla,
                                        Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla,
                                        Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*,
                                        Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*,
                                        Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
                                        Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-
                                        Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-
                                        la, Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla,
                                        Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
                                        Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*,
                                        Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
                                        Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og
                                        Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla,
                                        Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-
                                        Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*,
                                        Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-
                                        Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-
                                        Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-
                                        Skaftafellssysla
                                        note: there may be four other
                                        counties
                          Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
                      National holiday: Independence Day, 17 June (1944)
                          Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
                          Legal system: civil law system based on Danish
                                        law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
                                        jurisdiction
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: President Olafur
                                        Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August
                                        1996)
                                        head of government: Prime Minister
                                        David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
                                        cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                        prime minister and approved by
                                        Parliament
                                        election results: Olafur Ragnar
                                        GRIMSSON ran unopposed in 2000 and
                                        was reelected
                                        elections: president elected by
                                        popular vote for a four-year term;
                                        election last held 29 June 1996
                                        (next to be held NA June 2004);
                                        President GRIMSSON ran unopposed in
                                        June 2000 so there were no
                                        elections; prime minister appointed
                                        by the president
                    Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Althing (63
                                        seats; members are elected by
                                        popular vote to serve four-year
                                        terms)
                                        election results: percent of vote by
                                        party - Independence Party 40.7%,
                                        The Alliance (PA, People's Party,
                                        Women's List) 26.8%, Progressive
                                        Party 18.4%, Left-Green Alliance
                                        9.1%, Liberal Party 4.2%; seats by
                                        party - Independence Party 26, The
                                        Alliance 17, Progressive Party 12,
                                        Left-Green Alliance 6, Liberal Party
                                        2
                                        elections: last held 8 May 1999
                                        (next to be held by April 2003)
                       Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Haestirettur
                                        (justices are appointed for life by
                                        the president)
         Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative) or
                                        IP [David ODDSSON]; Left-Green
                                        Alliance [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON];
                                        Liberal Party [Sverrir HERMANNSSON];
                                        People's Party (Social Democratic
                                        Party) or SDP [Sighvatur
                                        BJORGVINSSON]; Progressive Party
                                        (liberal) or PP [Halldor
                                        ASGRIMSSON]; The Alliance (includes
                                        People's Alliance or PA, Social
                                        Democratic Party or SVP, People's
                                        Movement, Women's List) [Ossur
                                        SKARPHEDINSSON]; Women's List or WL
                                        [Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR]
          Political pressure groups and NA
                               leaders:
             International organization Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE,
                         participation: EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, IAEA,
                                        IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                        IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                        IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                        ISO, ITU, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD,
                                        OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                        UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WEU
                                        (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jon-
                                        Baldvin HANNIBALSSON
                                        chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th
                                        Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1704
  
                                        consulate(s) general: New York
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara
                                    US: J. GRIFFITHS
                                        embassy: Laufasvegur 21, 101
                                        Reykjavik
                                        mailing address: US Embassy, PSC
                                        1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340
                                        telephone: [354] 5629100
                                        FAX: [354] 5629123
                      Flag description: blue with a red cross outlined in
                                        white extending to the edges of the
                                        flag; the vertical part of the cross
                                        is shifted to the hoist side in the
                                        style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
  
   Economy Iceland
   ---------------
                    Economy - overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy
                                        is basically capitalistic, yet with
                                        an extensive welfare system, low
                                        unemployment, and remarkably even
                                        distribution of income. In the
                                        absence of other natural resources
                                        (except for abundant hydrothermal
                                        and geothermal power), the economy
                                        depends heavily on the fishing
                                        industry, providing 70% of export
                                        earnings and employing 12% of the
                                        work force. The economy remains
                                        sensitive to declining fish stocks
                                        as well as to drops in world prices
                                        for its main exports: fish and fish
                                        products, aluminum, and
                                        ferrosilicon. The center-right
                                        government plans to continue its
                                        policies of reducing the budget and
                                        current account deficits, limiting
                                        foreign borrowing, containing
                                        inflation, revising agricultural and
                                        fishing policies, diversifying the
                                        economy, and privatizing state-owned
                                        industries. The government remains
                                        opposed to EU membership, primarily
                                        because of Icelanders' concern about
                                        losing control over their fishing
                                        resources. Iceland's economy has
                                        been diversifying into manufacturing
                                        and service industries in the last
                                        decade, and new developments in
                                        software production, biotechnology,
                                        and financial services are taking
                                        place. The tourism sector is also
                                        expanding, with the recent trends in
                                        ecotourism and whale watching.
                                        Growth has been remarkably steady
                                        over the past five years at 4%-5%.
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.85
                                        billion (2000 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800
                                        (2000 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% (includes fishing
                                        13%)
                                        industry: 21%
                                        services: 64% (1999 est.)
         Population below poverty line: NA%
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2000 est.)
                           Labor force: 159,000 (2000)
           Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5.1%, fishing and fish
                                        processing 11.8%, manufacturing
                                        12.9%, construction 10.7%, other
                                        services 59.5% (1999)
                     Unemployment rate: 1% (April 2001 est.)
                                Budget: revenues: $3.5 billion
                                        expenditures: $3.3 billion,
                                        including capital expenditures of
                                        $467 million (1999)
                            Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting,
                                        ferrosilicon production, geothermal
                                        power; tourism
     Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)
              Electricity - production: 7.549 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.05%
                                        hydro: 83.3%
                                        other: 16.65% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 0%
             Electricity - consumption: 7.02 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: potatoes, turnips; cattle, sheep;
                                        fish
                               Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
                 Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 70%, animal
                                        products, aluminum, diatomite,
                                        ferrosilicon
                    Exports - partners: EU 64% (UK 20%, Germany 13%, France
                                        5%, Denmark 5%), US 15%, Japan 5%
                                        (1999)
                               Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
                 Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum
                                        products; foodstuffs, textiles
                    Imports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 12%, UK 9%, Denmark
                                        8%, Sweden 6%), US 11%, Norway 10%
                                        (1999)
                       Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1999)
                  Economic aid - donor: $NA
                              Currency: Icelandic krona (ISK)
                         Currency code: ISK
                        Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur per US dollar -
                                        102.430 (January 2002), 97.425
                                        (2001), 78.616 (2000), 72.335
                                        (1999), 70.958 (1998), 70.904 (1997)
                           Fiscal year: calendar year
  
   Communications Iceland
   ----------------------
        Telephones - main lines in use: 168,000 (1997)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 65,746 (1997)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: adequate
                                        domestic service
                                        domestic: the trunk network consists
                                        of coaxial and fiber-optic cables
                                        and microwave radio relay links
                                        international: satellite earth
                                        stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                        Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and
                                        Indian Ocean regions); note -
                                        Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth
                                        station with the other Nordic
                                        countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway,
                                        and Sweden)
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM about 70 (including
                                        repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
                                Radios: 260,000 (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: 14 (plus 156 low-power repeaters)
                                        (1997)
                           Televisions: 98,000 (1997)
                 Internet country code: .is
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)
                        Internet users: 168,000 (2001)
  
   Transportation Iceland
   ----------------------
                               Railways: 0 km
                               Highways: total: 12,691 km
                                         paved: 3,262 km
                                         unpaved: 9,429 km (1999)
                              Waterways: none
                      Ports and harbors: Akureyri, Hornafjordhur,
                                         Isafjordhur, Keflavik, Raufarhofn,
                                         Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
                                         Straumsvik, Vesttmannaeyjar
                        Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
                                         totaling 1,816 GRT/2,500 DWT
                                         ships by type: chemical tanker 1
                                         (2002 est.)
                               Airports: 86 (2001)
          Airports - with paved runways: total: 13
                                         over 3,047 m: 1
                                         1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                         914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2001)
        Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 73
                                         1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
                                         914 to 1,523 m: 21
                                         under 914 m: 49 (2001)
  
   Military Iceland
   ----------------
                     Military branches: no regular armed forces; Police,
                                        Coast Guard
      Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 71,142 (2002 est.)
   Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 62,556 (2002 est.)
                               service:
         Military expenditures - dollar $0
                                figure:
                       Military - note: defense is provided by the US-manned
                                        Icelandic Defense Force (IDF)
                                        headquartered at Keflavik
  
   Transnational Issues Iceland
   ----------------------------
              Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute
                                        involving Denmark, Iceland, and the
                                        UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
                                        boundary agreement in the Rockall
                                        area); dispute with Denmark over the
                                        Faroe Islands' fisheries median line
                                        boundary within 200 NM; disputes
                                        with Denmark, the UK, and Ireland
                                        over the Faroe Islands continental
                                        shelf boundary outside 200 NM
  
                                       



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