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1. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Hydrochloric \Hy`dro*chlo"ric\, a. [Hydro-, 2 + chloric: cf. F.
   hydrochlorique.] (Chem.)
   Pertaining to, or compounded of, chlorine and hydrogen gas;
   as, hydrochloric acid; chlorhydric.
   [1913 Webster]

   Hydrochloric acid (Chem.), hydrogen chloride; a colorless,
      corrosive gas, HCl, of pungent, suffocating odor. It is
      made in great quantities in the soda process, by the
      action of sulphuric acid on common salt. It has a great
      affinity for water, and the commercial article is a strong
      solution of the gas in water. It is a typical acid, and is
      an indispensable agent in commercial and general chemical
      work. Called also muriatic acid and chlorhydric acid.
      [1913 Webster]

2. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Ion \I"on\ ([imac]"[o^]n), n. [Gr. 'io`n, neut, of 'iw`n, p. pr.
   of 'ie`nai to go.]
   1. (Elec. Chem.) an atom or goup of atoms (radical) carrying
      an electrical charge. It is contrasted with neutral atoms
      or molecules, and free radicals. Certain compounds, such
      as sodium chloride, are composed of complementary ions in
      the solid (crystalline) as well as in solution. Others,
      notably acids such as hydrogen chloride, may occur as
      neutral molecules in the pure liquid or gas forms, and
      ionize almost completely in dilute aqueous solutions. In
      solutions (as in water) ions are frequently bound
      non-covalently with the molecules of solvent, and in that
      case are said to be solvated. According to the
      electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of
      electrolytes are divided into ions by water and other
      solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries
      one unit charges of electricity, 3.4 x 10^-10
      electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which
      are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are
      called cations; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms
      or groups) are called anions.

   Note: Thus, hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates, in aqueous
         solution, into the hydrogen ion, H+, and the chlorine
         ion, Cl-; ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3)3, yields the
         ferric ion, Fe+++, and nitrate ions, NO3-, NO3-,
         NO3-. When a solution containing ions is made part of
         an electric circuit, the cations move toward the
         cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is
         called migration, and the velocity of it differs for
         different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is
         sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their
         charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or
         decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali;
         similarly, at the anode the element of the anion
         separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or
         decomposition occurs. Aluminum and chlorine are
         elements prepared predominantly by such electrolysis,
         and depends on dissolving compounds in a solvent where
         the element forms ions. Electrolysis is also used in
         refining other metals, such as copper and silver. Cf.
         Anion, Cation.
         [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

   2. One of the small electrified particles into which the
      molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the
      electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays,
      and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior
      of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through
      rarefied gases and many other important effects are
      ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be
      electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At
      ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number
      of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in
      various ways.
      [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

3. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Muriatic \Mu`ri*at"ic\, a. [L. muriaticus pickled, from muria
   brine: cf. F. muriatique.] (Chem.)
   Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, sea salt, or from
   chlorine, one of the constituents of sea salt; hydrochloric.
   [1913 Webster]

   Muriatic acid, hydrochloric acid, HCl; -- formerly called
      also marine acid, and spirit of salt. See
      hydrochloric, and the Note under Muriate.
      [1913 Webster]

4. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48
Type \Type\ (t[imac]p), n. [F. type; cf. It. tipo, from L. typus
   a figure, image, a form, type, character, Gr. ty`pos the mark
   of a blow, impression, form of character, model, from the
   root of ty`ptein to beat, strike; cf. Skr. tup to hurt.]
   1. The mark or impression of something; stamp; impressed
      sign; emblem.
      [1913 Webster]

            The faith they have in tennis, and tall stockings,
            Short blistered breeches, and those types of travel.
      [1913 Webster]

   2. Form or character impressed; style; semblance.
      [1913 Webster]

            Thy father bears the type of king of Naples. --Shak.
      [1913 Webster]

   3. A figure or representation of something to come; a token;
      a sign; a symbol; -- correlative to antitype.
      [1913 Webster]

            A type is no longer a type when the thing typified
            comes to be actually exhibited.       --South.
      [1913 Webster]

   4. That which possesses or exemplifies characteristic
      qualities; the representative. Specifically:
      (a) (Biol.) A general form or structure common to a number
          of individuals; hence, the ideal representation of a
          species, genus, or other group, combining the
          essential characteristics; an animal or plant
          possessing or exemplifying the essential
          characteristics of a species, genus, or other group.
          Also, a group or division of animals having a certain
          typical or characteristic structure of body maintained
          within the group.
          [1913 Webster]

                Since the time of Cuvier and Baer . . . the
                whole animal kingdom has been universally held
                to be divisible into a small number of main
                divisions or types.               --Haeckel.
          [1913 Webster]
      (b) (Fine Arts) The original object, or class of objects,
          scene, face, or conception, which becomes the subject
          of a copy; esp., the design on the face of a medal or
          a coin.
          [1913 Webster]
      (c) (Chem.) A simple compound, used as a model or pattern
          to which other compounds are conveniently regarded as
          being related, and from which they may be actually or
          theoretically derived.
          [1913 Webster]

   Note: The fundamental types used to express the simplest and
         most essential chemical relations are hydrochloric
         acid, HCl; water, H2O; ammonia, NH3; and methane,
         [1913 Webster]

   5. (Typog.)
      (a) A raised letter, figure, accent, or other character,
          cast in metal or cut in wood, used in printing.
      (b) Such letters or characters, in general, or the whole
          quantity of them used in printing, spoken of
          collectively; any number or mass of such letters or
          characters, however disposed.
          [1913 Webster]

   Note: Type are mostly made by casting type metal in a mold,
         though some of the larger sizes are made from maple,
         mahogany, or boxwood. In the cut, a is the body; b, the
         face, or part from which the impression is taken; c,
         the shoulder, or top of the body; d, the nick
         (sometimes two or more are made), designed to assist
         the compositor in distinguishing the bottom of the face
         from t`e top; e, the groove made in the process of
         finishing, -- each type as cast having attached to the
         bottom of the body a jet, or small piece of metal
         (formed by the surplus metal poured into the mold),
         which, when broken off, leaves a roughness that
         requires to be removed. The fine lines at the top and
         bottom of a letter are technically called ceriphs, and
         when part of the face projects over the body, as in the
         letter f, the projection is called a kern.
         [1913 Webster] The type which compose an ordinary book
         font consist of Roman CAPITALS, small capitals, and
         lower-case letters, and Italic CAPITALS and lower-case
         letters, with accompanying figures, points, and
         reference marks, -- in all about two hundred
         characters. Including the various modern styles of
         fancy type, some three or four hundred varieties of
         face are made. Besides the ordinary Roman and Italic,
         some of the most important of the varieties are 
         [1913 Webster] Old English. Black Letter. Old Style.
         French Elzevir. Boldface. Antique. Clarendon. Gothic.
         Typewriter. Script.
         [1913 Webster] The smallest body in common use is
         diamond; then follow in order of size, pearl, agate,
         nonpareil, minion, brevier, bourgeois (or two-line
         diamond), long primer (or two-line pearl), small pica
         (or two-line agate), pica (or two-line nonpareil),
         English (or two-line minion), Columbian (or two-line
         brevier), great primer (or two-line bourgeois), paragon
         (or two-line long primer), double small pica (or
         two-line small pica), double pica (or two-line pica),
         double English (or two-line English), double great
         primer (or two-line great primer), double paragon (or
         two-line paragon), canon (or two-line double pica).
         Above this, the sizes are called five-line pica,
         six-line pica, seven-line pica, and so on, being made
         mostly of wood. The following alphabets show the
         different sizes up to great primer.
         [1913 Webster] Brilliant . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
         Diamond . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pearl . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Agate . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Nonpareil . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Minion . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Brevier . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Bourgeois . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Long primer . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Small pica . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pica . . . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz English . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Columbian . . .
         abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Great primer . . .
         [1913 Webster] The foregoing account is conformed to
         the designations made use of by American type founders,
         but is substantially correct for England. Agate,
         however, is called ruby, in England, where, also, a
         size intermediate between nonpareil and minion is
         employed, called emerald.
         [1913 Webster]

   Point system of type bodies (Type Founding), a system
      adopted by the type founders of the United States by which
      the various sizes of type have been so modified and
      changed that each size bears an exact proportional
      relation to every other size. The system is a modification
      of a French system, and is based on the pica body. This
      pica body is divided into twelfths, which are termed
      "points," and every type body consist of a given number of
      these points. Many of the type founders indicate the new
      sizes of type by the number of points, and the old names
      are gradually being done away with. By the point system
      type founders cast type of a uniform size and height,
      whereas formerly fonts of pica or other type made by
      different founders would often vary slightly so that they
      could not be used together. There are no type in actual
      use corresponding to the smaller theoretical sizes of the
      point system. In some cases, as in that of ruby, the term
      used designates a different size from that heretofore so
      [1913 Webster] 1 American 9 Bourgeois [bar] [bar] 11/2
      German [bar] 2 Saxon 10 Long Primer [bar] [bar] 21/2 Norse
      [bar] 3 Brilliant 11 Small Pica [bar] [bar] 31/2 Ruby 12
      Pica [bar] [bar] 4 Excelsior [bar] 41/2 Diamond 14 English
      [bar] [bar] 5 Pearl 16 Columbian [bar] [bar] 51/2 Agate
      [bar] 6 Nonpareil 18 Great Primer [bar] [bar] 7 Minion
      [bar] 8 Brevier 20 Paragon [bar] [bar] Diagram of the
      "points" by which sizes of Type are graduated in the
      "Point System".
      [1913 Webster]

   Type founder, one who casts or manufacture type.

   Type foundry, Type foundery, a place for the manufacture
      of type.

   Type metal, an alloy used in making type, stereotype
      plates, etc., and in backing up electrotype plates. It
      consists essentially of lead and antimony, often with a
      little tin, nickel, or copper.

   Type wheel, a wheel having raised letters or characters on
      its periphery, and used in typewriters, printing
      telegraphs, etc.

   Unity of type (Biol.), that fundamental agreement in
      structure which is seen in organic beings of the same
      class, and is quite independent of their habits of life.
      [1913 Webster]

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