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1. WordNet® 3.0 (2006)
    n 1: a state in southeastern United States; one of the
         Confederate states during the American Civil War [syn:
         Georgia, Empire State of the South, Peach State,
    2: one of the British colonies that formed the United States
    3: a republic in Asia Minor on the Black Sea separated from
       Russia by the Caucasus mountains; formerly an Asian soviet
       but became independent in 1991 [syn: Georgia, Sakartvelo]

2. CIA World Factbook 2002

   Introduction Georgia
                            Background: Georgia was absorbed into the
                                        Russian Empire in the 19th century.
                                        Independent for three years (1918-
                                        1921) following the Russian
                                        revolution, it was forcibly
                                        incorporated into the USSR until the
                                        Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
                                        Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and
                                        South Ossetia, poor governance, and
                                        Russian military bases deny the
                                        government effective control over
                                        the entirety of the state's
                                        internationally recognized
                                        territory. Despite myriad problems,
                                        progress on market reforms and
                                        democratization support the
                                        country's goal of greater
                                        integration with Western political,
                                        economic and security institutions.
   Geography Georgia
                              Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the
                                        Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
                Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E
                        Map references: Asia
                                  Area: total: 69,700 sq km
                                        water: 0 sq km
                                        land: 69,700 sq km
                    Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina
                       Land boundaries: total: 1,461 km
                                        border countries: Armenia 164 km,
                                        Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
                                        Turkey 252 km
                             Coastline: 310 km
                       Maritime claims: NA
                               Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-
                                        like on Black Sea coast
                               Terrain: largely mountainous with Great
                                        Caucasus Mountains in the north and
                                        Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the
                                        south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida
                                        Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in
                                        the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the
                                        east; good soils in river valley
                                        flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida
                    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
                                        highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri
                                        5,047 m
                     Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese
                                        deposits, iron ore, copper, minor
                                        coal and oil deposits; coastal
                                        climate and soils allow for
                                        important tea and citrus growth
                              Land use: arable land: 11.21%
                                        permanent crops: 4.09%
                                        other: 84.71% (1998 est.)
                        Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
                       Natural hazards: earthquakes
          Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in
                                        Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari
                                        River and the Black Sea; inadequate
                                        supplies of potable water; soil
                                        pollution from toxic chemicals
            Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                            agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                        Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
                                        Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                        Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                        Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                        Pollution, Wetlands
                                        signed, but not ratified: none of
                                        the selected agreements
                      Geography - note: strategically located east of the
                                        Black Sea; Georgia controls much of
                                        the Caucasus Mountains and the
                                        routes through them
   People Georgia
                            Population: 4,960,951 (July 2002 est.)
                         Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 481,669;
                                        female 462,966)
                                        15-64 years: 68.2% (male 1,631,351;
                                        female 1,752,230)
                                        65 years and over: 12.8% (male
                                        246,663; female 386,072) (2002 est.)
                Population growth rate: -0.55% (2002 est.)
                            Birth rate: 11.48 births/1,000 population (2002
                            Death rate: 14.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                    Net migration rate: -2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                        (2002 est.)
                             Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                        under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                        15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
                                        65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/
                                        total population: 0.91 male(s)/
                                        female (2002 est.)
                 Infant mortality rate: 51.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
              Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.67 years
                                        female: 68.32 years (2002 est.)
                                        male: 61.19 years
                  Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)
      HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
     HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 500 (1999 est.)
                     HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                           Nationality: noun: Georgian(s)
                                        adjective: Georgian
                         Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%,
                                        Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian
                                        3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
                             Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%,
                                        Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian
                                        Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%
                             Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%,
                                        Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
                                        note: Abkhaz is the official
                                        language in Abkhazia
                              Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                        and write
                                        total population: 99%
                                        male: 100%
                                        female: 98% (1989 est.)
   Government Georgia
                          Country name: conventional long form: none
                                        conventional short form: Georgia
                                        local short form: Sak'art'velo
                                        former: Georgian Soviet Socialist
                                        local long form: none
                       Government type: republic
                               Capital: T'bilisi
              Administrative divisions: 9 regions, (mkharebi, singular -
                                        mkhare), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi,
                                        singular - k'alak'i), and 2
                                        autonomous republics** (avtomnoy
                                        respubliki, singular - avtom
                                        respublika); Abkhazia or
                                        Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri
                                        Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or
                                        Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika**
                                        (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria,
                                        Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo
                                        Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*,
                                        Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti,
                                        Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo
                                        Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida
                                        Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*,
                                        Tsqaltubo*, Zugdidi*
                                        note: the administrative centers of
                                        the 2 autonomous republics are shown
                                        in parentheses
                          Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                      National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1918);
                                        note - 26 May 1918 is the date of
                                        independence from Soviet Russia, 9
                                        April 1991 is the date of
                                        independence from the Soviet Union
                          Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995
                          Legal system: based on civil law system
                              Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                      Executive branch: chief of state: President Eduard
                                        Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
                                        (previously elected chairman of the
                                        Government Council 10 March 1992;
                                        Council has since been disbanded;
                                        previously elected chairman of
                                        Parliament 11 October 1992;
                                        president since 26 November 1995);
                                        note - the president is both the
                                        chief of state and head of
                                        head of government: President Eduard
                                        Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
                                        (previously elected chairman of the
                                        Government Council 10 March 1992;
                                        Council has since been disbanded;
                                        previously elected chairman of
                                        Parliament 11 October 1992;
                                        president since 26 November 1995);
                                        note - the president is both the
                                        chief of state and head of
                                        cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                        election results: Eduard
                                        SHEVARDNADZE reelected president;
                                        percent of vote - Eduard
                                        SHEVARDNADZE 80%
                                        elections: president elected by
                                        popular vote for a five-year term;
                                        election last held 9 April 2000
                                        (next to be held NA 2005)
                    Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council (commonly
                                        referred to as Parliament) or
                                        Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members
                                        are elected by popular vote to serve
                                        four-year terms)
                                        election results: percent of vote by
                                        party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%,
                                        IWSG 7.8%, all other parties
                                        received less than 7% each; seats by
                                        party - CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15,
                                        Abkhaz (government-in-exile)
                                        deputies 12, independents 17, other
                                        elections: last held 31 October and
                                        14 November 1999 (next to be held NA
                       Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges elected by the
                                        Supreme Council on the president's
                                        recommendation); Constitutional
         Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG
                                        [Zarab ZHVANIA]; Georgian People's
                                        Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian
                                        United Communist Party or UCPG
                                        [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens
                                        [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry
                                        Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi
                                        TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Salva
                                        NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic
                                        Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-
                                        CHANTURIA]; New National Movement
                                        [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rightists
                                        [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican
                                        Party [David BERDZENISHVILI];
                                        "Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan
                                        ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG
                                        [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists
                                        [Akaki ASATIANI]
          Political pressure groups and Georgian independent deputies from
                               leaders: Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in Georgian
                                        Parliament); separatist elements in
                                        the breakaway region of Abkhazia;
                                        supporters of the late ousted
                                        President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain
                                        a source of opposition
             International organization BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                         participation: FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
                                        IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                        Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, OPCW, OSCE,
                                        PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
                                        WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
   Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Levan
                                        chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New
                                        Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
                                        FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060
                                        telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
     Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Richard
                                    US: MILES
                                        embassy: #25 Antoneli Street,
                                        T'bilisi 380026
                                        mailing address: use embassy street
                                        telephone: [995] (32) 989-967/68
                                        FAX: [995] (32) 933-759
                      Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in
                                        upper hoist side corner; rectangle
                                        divided horizontally with black on
                                        top, white below
   Economy Georgia
                    Economy - overview: Georgia's main economic activities
                                        include the cultivation of
                                        agricultural products such as citrus
                                        fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes;
                                        mining of manganese and copper; and
                                        output of a small industrial sector
                                        producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic
                                        beverages, metals, machinery, and
                                        chemicals. The country imports the
                                        bulk of its energy needs, including
                                        natural gas and oil products. Its
                                        only sizable internal energy
                                        resource is hydropower. Despite the
                                        severe damage the economy has
                                        suffered due to civil strife,
                                        Georgia, with the help of the IMF
                                        and World Bank, has made substantial
                                        economic gains since 1995, achieving
                                        positive GDP growth and curtailing
                                        inflation. However, the Georgian
                                        government suffers from limited
                                        resources due to a chronic failure
                                        to collect tax revenues. Georgia
                                        also suffers from energy shortages;
                                        it privatized the T'bilisi
                                        distribution network in 1998, but
                                        collection rates are low, making the
                                        venture unprofitable. The country is
                                        pinning its hopes for long-term
                                        recovery on its role as a transit
                                        state for pipelines and trade. The
                                        start of construction on the Baku-
                                        T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in summer
                                        2002 will bring much-needed
                                        investment and job opportunities to
                                        the country.
                                   GDP: purchasing power parity - $15.5
                                        billion (2001 est.)
                GDP - real growth rate: 8.4% (2001 est.)
                      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100
                                        (2001 est.)
           GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%
                                        industry: 20%
                                        services: 55% (2001 est.)
         Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)
     Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.3%
                      percentage share: highest 10%: 27.9% (1996)
   Distribution of family income - Gini 37.1 (1996)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (2001 est.)
                           Labor force: 2.1 million (2001 est.)
           Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture 40%,
                                        services 40% (1999 est.)
                     Unemployment rate: 17% (2001 est.)
                                Budget: revenues: $499 million
                                        expenditures: $554 million,
                                        including capital expenditures of
                                        $NA (2001 est.)
                            Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools,
                                        electrical appliances, mining
                                        (manganese), chemicals, wood
                                        products, wine
     Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000)
              Electricity - production: 7.404 billion kWh (2000)
    Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 20.99%
                                        hydro: 79.01%
                                        other: 0% (2000)
                                        nuclear: 0%
             Electricity - consumption: 7.886 billion kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - exports: 200 million kWh (2000)
                 Electricity - imports: 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
                Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables,
                                        potatoes; livestock
                               Exports: $450 million (2001 est.)
                 Exports - commodities: scrap metal, machinery, chemicals;
                                        fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea,
                                        wine, other agricultural products
                    Exports - partners: Turkey 22.3%, Russia 20.6%, Germany
                                        10.4%, Azerbaijan 6.3%, Armenia 4%,
                                        US 2.2% (2000)
                               Imports: $723 million (2001 est.)
                 Imports - commodities: fuels, machinery and parts,
                                        transport equipment, grain and other
                                        foods, pharmaceuticals
                    Imports - partners: EU 23.8%, Turkey 16%, Russia 12.8%,
                                        US 10.1%, Germany 7.9% (2000)
                       Debt - external: $1.7 billion (2001)
              Economic aid - recipient: $212.7 million (1995)
                              Currency: lari (GEL)
                         Currency code: GEL
                        Exchange rates: lari per US dollar - 2.1888 (January
                                        2002), 2.0730 (2001), 1.9762 (2000),
                                        2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975
                           Fiscal year: calendar year
   Communications Georgia
        Telephones - main lines in use: 620,000 (1997)
          Telephones - mobile cellular: 185,500 (2000)
                      Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                        domestic: local - T'bilisi and
                                        K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone
                                        networks; urban telephone density is
                                        about 20 per 100 people; rural
                                        telephone density is about 4 per 100
                                        people; intercity facilities include
                                        a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi
                                        and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager
                                        service is available
                                        international: Georgia and Russia
                                        are working on a fiber-optic line
                                        between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia);
                                        present international service is
                                        available by microwave, landline,
                                        and satellite through the Moscow
                                        switch; international electronic
                                        mail and telex service are available
              Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                Radios: 3.02 million (1997)
         Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
                           Televisions: 2.57 million (1997)
                 Internet country code: .ge
     Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                        Internet users: 20,000 (2000)
   Transportation Georgia
                              Railways: total: 1,583 km in common carrier
                                        service; does not include industrial
                                        broad gauge: 1,546 km 1.520-m gauge
                                        narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge
                                        (2000 est.)
                              Highways: total: 33,900 km
                                        paved: 29,500 km (includes some all-
                                        weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                        unpaved: 4,400 km (these roads are
                                        made of unstabilized earth and are
                                        difficult to negotiate in wet
                                        weather) (1990)
                             Waterways: none
                             Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products
                                        300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)
                     Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
                       Merchant marine: total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                        totaling 210,620 GRT/288,565 DWT
                                        ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 46,
                                        container 5, petroleum tanker 7,
                                        roll on/roll off 1
                                        note: includes some foreign-owned
                                        ships registered here as a flag of
                                        convenience: Belize 1, Bulgaria 1,
                                        Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 4,
                                        Gibraltar 1, Greece 5, Jordan 1,
                                        Latvia 1, Liberia 1, Malta 1, Panama
                                        9, Romania 8, Russia 4, Saint Kitts
                                        and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria
                                        5, Turkey 2, Ukraine 7, United Arab
                                        Emirates 11, United Kingdom 1,
                                        United States 1 (2002 est.)
                              Airports: 31 (2001)
         Airports - with paved runways: total: 16
                                        over 3,047 m: 1
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                        under 914 m: 3 (2001)
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
       Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 15
                                        2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                        1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                        under 914 m: 6 (2001)
                                        914 to 1,523 m: 4
                 Transportation - note: transportation network is in poor
                                        condition resulting from ethnic
                                        conflict, criminal activities, and
                                        fuel shortages; network lacks
                                        maintenance and repair
   Military Georgia
                     Military branches: Ground Forces (includes National
                                        Guard), combined Air and Air Defense
                                        Forces, Naval Forces, Republic
                                        Security and Police Forces (internal
                                        and border troops)
      Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
      Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,300,259 (2002
   Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,027,407 (2002
                               service: est.)
           Military manpower - reaching males: 41,561 (2002 est.)
                 military age annually:
         Military expenditures - dollar $23 million (FY00)
     Military expenditures - percent of 0.59% (FY00)
                       Military - note: a CIS peacekeeping force of Russian
                                        troops is deployed in the Abkhazia
                                        region of Georgia together with a UN
                                        military observer group; a Russian
                                        peacekeeping battalion is deployed
                                        in South Ossetia
   Transnational Issues Georgia
              Disputes - international: Chechen and other insurgents transit
                                        Pankisi Gorge to infiltrate Akhmeti
                                        region; boundary with Russia has
                                        been largely delimited, but not
                                        demarcated; several small, strategic
                                        segments remain in dispute
                         Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and
                                        opium poppy, mostly for domestic
                                        consumption; used as transshipment
                                        point for opiates via Central Asia
                                        to Western Europe and Russia

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